CCTV cameras - Expert commentary

Remote Monitoring technology: Tackling South Africa’s cable theft problem
Remote Monitoring technology: Tackling South Africa’s cable theft problem

For decades, cable theft has caused disruption to infrastructure across South Africa, and an issue that permeates the whole supply chain. Here, Ian Loudon, international sales and marketing manager at remote monitoring specialist Omniflex, explains how new cable-alarm technology is making life difficult for criminals and giving hope to businesses. In November 2020, Nasdaq reported that, “When South Africa shut large parts of its economy and transport network during its COVID-19 lockdown, organised, sometimes armed, gangs moved into its crumbling stations to steal the valuable copper from the lines. Now, more than two months after that lockdown ended, the commuter rail system, relied on by millions of commuters, is barely operational.” Private security firm Despite this most recent incident, cable theft is not a new phenomenon to sweep South Africa Despite this most recent incident, cable theft is not a new phenomenon to sweep South Africa. In 2001, SABC TV broadcast a story following two members of a private security firm working for Telkom, a major telecoms provider. In the segment, the two guards, working in Amanzimtoti on the south coast of KwaZulu-Natal, head out to investigate a nearby alarm that has been triggered. They reach a telecoms cabinet and discover that it has been compromised, with the copper cable cut and telephone handsets strewn across the ground. In the dark, they continue to search the area when one of the guards discovers the problem: 500 metres of copper wire has been ripped out. In their haste, the thieves have dropped their loot and fled. Widespread cable theft Had they managed to get away, they would have melted the cable to remove the plastic insulation and sold the copper to a local scrap dealer for around 900 Rand, about $50 US dollars. For the company whose infrastructure has been compromised, it may cost ten times that amount to replace and repair the critical infrastructure. The disappointing takeaway from this story is that two decades on from this incident the country still faces widespread cable theft, whether it’s copper cables from mines, pipelines, railways, telecoms or electrical utilities. In fact, the South African Chamber of Commerce and Industry estimates that cable theft costs the economy between R5–7 billion a year. The answer to the problem must go further than the existing measures used by companies. Detect power failure Most businesses already invest in CCTV, fences, barriers and even patrol guards, but this is not enough. Take the mining sector, for example. These sites can be vast, spanning dozens of kilometres - it’s simply not cost effective to install enough fences or employ enough guards or camera operators. As monitoring technology gets better, the company has seen site managers increasingly use cable alarms in recent years that detect when a power failure occurs. The idea is that, if one can detect a power failure, they can detect whether the cable has been cut The idea is that, if one can detect a power failure, they can detect whether the cable has been cut. The problem is though: how does one distinguish the difference between a situation where a cable has been cut intentionally and a genuine power outage? Power outages in South Africa are an ongoing problem, with the country contending with an energy deficit since late 2005, leading to around 6,000 MW of power cuts in 2019. Remote terminal units Eskom Holdings SOC Ltd., the company that generates around 95 per cent of South Africa’s power has already warned of further blackouts as the company works to carry out repairs to its power plants. According to a statement on the company’s website, “Eskom spends in the region of R2 billion a year replacing stolen copper cables." The result is that criminals take advantage of the gaps in power to steal cable, timing their robberies to coincide with the published load shedding schedules. The basic alarms used to detect power outage won’t recognise the theft because they register a false-positive during a power cut. By the time the power comes back on, the deed has been done and the criminals have gotten away with the cable. The good news is that recent breakthroughs in cable monitoring technology are helping tackle just this problem. New alarms on the market now combine sophisticated GSM-based monitoring systems that use battery powered remote terminal units. Legitimate supply chain Unlike the basic alarms that look for the presence or absence of power, these new systems monitor whether the cable circuit is in an open or closed state. In the event of a power outage, the unit continues to run on battery power and can detect if a cable has been cut, sending a priority SMS alert to the site manager immediately, giving them a fighting chance to prevent a robbery in progress. Beyond the opportunistic theft carried out by petty criminals, the theft of copper cables forms a wider problem Beyond the opportunistic theft carried out by petty criminals, the theft of copper cables forms a wider problem across the supply chain in South Africa. In recent years, the combination of unscrupulous scrap dealers, the alleged involvement of large scrap processing companies and lax penalties meant that much of the stolen copper ended up back in the legitimate supply chain. However, recent changes in the law have sought to take a tougher stance on copper theft. Alarm monitoring technology According to the Western Cape Government, “The Criminal Matters Amendment Act, regulates bail and imposes minimum offences for essential infrastructure-related offences." The act, which came into effect in 2018, recommends sentencing for cable theft, with the minimum sentence for first-time offenders being three years and for those who are involved in instigating or causing damage to infrastructure, the maximum sentence is thirty years. It seems to be working too. In January 2021, the South African reported that a Johannesburg man was sentenced to eight years behind bars for cable theft in Turffontein. While the longer-term outlook is a positive one for industry, the best advice for businesses seeking to alleviate the problem of cable theft in the immediate future is to invest in the latest cable-theft alarm monitoring technology to tackle the problem and make life difficult for criminals.

We have the technology to make society safer – how long can we justify not using it?
We have the technology to make society safer – how long can we justify not using it?

While the application of facial recognition within both public and private spheres continues to draw criticism from those who see it as a threat to civil rights, this technology has become extremely commonplace in the lives of iPhone users. It is so prevalent, in fact, that by 2024 it is predicted that 90% of smartphones will use biometric facial recognition hardware. CCTV surveillance cameras  Similarly, CCTV is a well-established security measure that many of us are familiar with, whether through spotting images displayed on screens in shops, hotels and offices, or noticing cameras on the side of buildings. It is therefore necessary we ask the question of why, when facial recognition is integrated with security surveillance technology, does it become such a source of contention? It is not uncommon for concerns to be voiced against innovation. History has taught us that it is human nature to fear the unknown, especially if it seems that it may change life as we know it. Yet technology is an ever-changing, progressive part of the 21st century and it is important we start to shift the narrative away from privacy threats, to the force for good that LFR (Live Facial Recognition) represents. Live Facial Recognition (LFR) We understand the arguments from those that fear the ethics of AI and the data collection within facial recognition Across recent weeks, we have seen pleas from UK organisations to allow better police access to facial recognition technology in order to fight crime. In the US, there are reports that LAPD is the latest police force to be properly regulating its use of facial recognition to aid criminal investigations, which is certainly a step in the right direction. While it is understandable that society fears technology that they do not yet understand, this lack of knowledge is exactly why the narrative needs to shift. We understand the arguments from those that fear the ethics of AI and the data collection within facial recognition, we respect these anxieties. However, it is time to level the playing field of the facial recognition debate and communicate the plethora of benefits it offers society. Facial recognition technology - A force for good Facial recognition technology has already reached such a level of maturity and sophistication that there are huge opportunities for it to be leveraged as a force for good in real-world scenarios. As well as making society safer and more secure, I would go as far to say that LFR is able to save lives. One usage that could have a dramatic effect on reducing stress in people with mental conditions is the ability for facial recognition to identify those with Alzheimer’s. If an older individual is seemingly confused, lost or distressed, cameras could alert local medical centres or police stations of their identity, condition and where they need to go (a home address or a next of kin contact). Granted, this usage would be one that does incorporate a fair bit of personal data, although this information would only be gathered with consent from each individual. Vulnerable people could volunteer their personal data to local watchlists in order to ensure their safety when out in society, as well as to allow quicker resolutions of typically stressful situations. Tracking and finding missing persons Another possibility for real world positives to be drawn from facial recognition is to leverage the technology to help track or find missing persons, a lost child for instance. The most advanced forms of LFR in the market are now able to recognise individuals even if up to 50% of their face is covered and from challenging or oblique angles. Therefore, there is a significant opportunity not only to return people home safely, more quickly, but also reduce police hours spent on analysing CCTV footage. Rapid scanning of images Facial recognition technology can rapidly scan images for a potential match Facial recognition technology can rapidly scan images for a potential match, as a more reliable and less time-consuming option than the human alternative. Freed-up officers could also then work more proactively on the ground, patrolling their local areas and increasing community safety and security twofold. It is important to understand that these facial recognition solutions should not be applied to every criminal case, and the technology must be used responsibly. However, these opportunities to use LFR as force for good are undeniable.   Debunking the myths One of the central concerns around LFR is the breach of privacy that is associated with ‘watchlists’. There is a common misconception, however, that the data of every individual that passes a camera is processed and then stored. The reality is that watch lists are compiled with focus on known criminals, while the general public can continue life as normal. The very best facial recognition will effectively view a stream of blurred faces, until it detects one that it has been programmed to recognise. For example, an individual that has previously shoplifted from a local supermarket may have their biometric data stored, so when they return to that location the employees are alerted to a risk of further crimes being committed. Considering that the cost of crime prevention to retailers in recent years has been around £1 billion, which therefore impacts consumer prices and employee wages, security measures to tackle this issue are very much in the public interest. Most importantly, the average citizen has no need to fear being ‘followed’ by LFR cameras. If data is stored, it is for a maximum of 0.6 seconds before being deleted. Privacy Privacy is ingrained in facial recognition solutions, yet it seems the debate often ignores this side of the story Privacy is ingrained in facial recognition solutions, yet it seems the debate often ignores this side of the story. It is essential we spend more time and effort communicating exactly why watchlists are made, who they are made for and how they are being used, if we want to de-bunk myths and change the narrative. As science and technology professionals, heading up this exciting innovation, we must put transparency and accountability at the centre of what we do. Tony Porter, former Surveillance Camera Commissioner and current CPO at Corsight AI, has previously worked on developing processes that audit and review watch lists. Such restrictions are imperative in order for AI and LFR to be used legally, as well as ethically and responsibly. Biometrics, mask detection and contactless payments Nevertheless, the risks do not outweigh the benefits. Facial recognition should and can be used for good in so many more ways than listed above, including biometric, contactless payments, detecting whether an individual is wearing a facemask and is therefore, safe to enter a building, identifying a domestic abuse perpetrator returning to the scene of a crime and alerting police. There are even opportunities for good that we have not thought of yet. It is therefore not only a waste not to use this technology where we can, prioritising making society a safer place, it is immoral to stand by and let crimes continue while we have effective, reliable mitigation solutions.  

Securing empty premises: Product performance is everything
Securing empty premises: Product performance is everything

Since the start of the pandemic, almost a quarter of UK businesses have been forced to temporarily close, pause trading, or work remotely, with very little notice. Now nearing the 12th month of the crisis, the country is currently enduring its third national lockdown, with an unspecified timeframe. Most workers are being urged to remain at home and only venture out for essential travel. This means a huge number of premises across the board, from recreational venues such as theatres, pubs and leisure centres, to office buildings, and storage facilities, will remain empty. It’s likely that security has been scaled back, so many buildings could be vulnerable to attack for the foreseeable future. Just recently we’ve seen empty pubs in London targeted by opportunistic illegal rave organisers. Physical security strategy Even rural areas aren’t exempt from the problem, as burglars have reportedly targeted beauty salons, etc Even rural areas aren’t exempt from the problem, as burglars have reportedly targeted beauty salons, food stores and vehicle hire premises this winter. Vandalism and burglary remain very real threats, therefore it is vital that facilities managers and property owners ensure the physical security of these empty buildings is maintained to the highest standard to protect property and the assets within. Below we outline key considerations when evaluating a physical security strategy for an empty building. Assess the risk We would urge facilities managers and building owners to carry out regular, thorough checks of the building and the perimeter to assess any obvious factors which would elevate the risk of attack. This includes assessing the location. Is the crime rate high? How visible is the property? Are the contents of the property on show? How secure is the access or perimeter boundary? View the premises from a potential intruder’s perspective, and when you can’t be at the site in person, use photographs, notes and drawings to identify potential weaknesses. For example, there may be high security fencing at the front of the premises, but make sure it is not at risk of being compromised at the back. Conducting regular maintenance Retain and maintain quality Inspecting the fence line may seem obvious and straightforward, but it needs to be a deliberate, scheduled event Conducting regular maintenance is even more essential while premises are left empty, as it is much easier for any issues to appear and escalate undetected. We highly recommend regularly inspecting your fencing for disrepair or damage as this can affect the perimeter’s integrity. Alternatively, choosing high quality galvanised and preferably powder coated steel fencing with a 25-year guarantee will offer longer-lasting protection against rust and corrosion. Inspecting the fence line may seem obvious and straightforward, but it needs to be a deliberate, scheduled event. Take time to check the perimeter on both sides. As you inspect the fencing, keep an eye out for any attempted breaches and note if foliage, weather conditions, or topography changes have affected security integrity. Check all fixtures and fittings are in good working order, look for damage and corrosion, and clear all litter and debris away. Huge security risk Quality investments In a time when businesses are already stretched, it can be tempting to opt for quick, inexpensive fixes. However, poorly executed design or cheap, low quality products can lead to costly, long-term remediation or worse, significant loss to the business. Make wise, informed decisions and specify solutions based on your organisation’s security needs first and foremost. While generic steel palisade is a popular option, owing to its intimidating aesthetic, it is easily compromised. Steel palisade fencing has inherent weaknesses that undermine performance. Its wide pales can obstruct surveillance, while the bolted construction is a huge security risk. Simply removing or breaking the lower fixing on one or two pales would allow them to swing aside to give repeated access to the site without leaving an easily visible sign that the perimeter has been breached. It’s a false economy, as the initial lower price is offset by the costs and inconvenience incurred by regular repairs. Performance classification system The standard works via a performance classification system, and even considers the tools that an intruder may use Specifying a higher quality product that’s fit for purpose makes more sense both in the short and long term, and it adds little to the original cost. Fortunately, there are a number of security accreditations that facilities managers and building owners can refer to when specifying security measures at their site, helping them choose effective solutions to combat the risks the property faces. Proven performance Certifications and approvals, such as The Loss Prevention Certification Board’s (LPCB) LPS 1175 and the British Standards Institution’s (BSI) PAS, prove a product has been thoroughly tested to a specific standard. They prove the strength and durability of the item in multiple different situations. It is worth noting also that investing in effective perimeter protection can actually deliver a positive return by reducing the incidence of burglary and vandalism, and their associated costs. The technical evaluation work carried out by LPCB is extremely thorough. The product is subjected to rigorous quality audit processes, to certify the security products tested by BRE deliver verified levels of protection. All LPS 1175 rated products are vigorously tested before receiving an accreditation. The standard works via a performance classification system, and even considers the tools that an intruder may use. Intrusion detection system Our law enforcement teams are stretched to capacity and coping with reduced workforces due to illness By predicting a likely toolset, specifiers can construct multiple defensive layers to maximise how much time a facility has to respond to an attack. Different levels of security are crucial for the ‘5D defence’ concept, whereby a quintet of security assets work together to prevent access to your site, resulting in a strategy that will: Deter, Detect, Deny, Delay and Defend unwanted access from intruders. 360° security There is no single solution when it comes to securing a building. Every situation must be considered on an individual basis, starting with a full risk assessment. We recommend an integrated approach where appropriate. Along with a secure perimeter, this might also include effective lighting in shaded areas and at doors, gates, and vulnerable windows, Perimeter Intrusion Detection Systems (PIDS) and well-placed CCTV. These measures can hinder entry and escape, or increase the chance of discovery and detection. Domestic burglaries While domestic burglaries have become less attractive as many of our homes are now occupied around the clock, commercial properties have become increasingly more vulnerable. Our law enforcement teams are stretched to capacity and coping with reduced workforces due to isolating and illness. Therefore it has never been so important for building owners and facilities managers to assess the properties they’re responsible for to ensure they’re protected effectively in the event of an attack.

Latest Moxa Europe GmbH news

Moxa launches Turbo Pack 3 firmware for industrial Ethernet switches, enhancing device security
Moxa launches Turbo Pack 3 firmware for industrial Ethernet switches, enhancing device security

Moxa's EDS-G500E and EDS-518E/528E DIN-rail switches support Turbo Pack 3, and all of Moxa's industrial Ethernet switches will support the new firmware by 2017 Moxa, a provider of network infrastructure solutions for the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), announced a new firmware upgrade for its industrial Ethernet switches with major enhancements for its security functionalities. This new firmware, called Turbo Pack 3, is not only compliant with the IEC 62443-4-2 level 2 cybersecurity standard, but also supports other security management features, such as MAC Address and RADIUS authentication to prevent from unauthorised access, known security leaks and unknown attacks. At present, Moxa's EDS-G500E and EDS-518E/528E DIN-rail switches support Turbo Pack 3, and all of Moxa's industrial Ethernet switches will support the new firmware by 2017. Increased device-level security According to an ICS-CERT report, cyber-attacks on the critical manufacturing sector increased by 50% from 2014 to 2015. The report noted that a lack of proper access management and network probing are among the most common network vulnerabilities. One of the key mechanisms to ensure a safe and reliable network is to strengthen device-level security. Turbo Pack 3 ensures Moxa's switches comply with the IEC 62443-4-2 level 2 standard, which provides technical security requirements and guidelines for network device suppliers and engineers. Moreover, the new firmware upgrade supports MAC authentication bypass via RADIUS server, and also fixes certain security vulnerabilities to protect the switches from malicious intrusion. Ensure network availability The firmware upgrade also supports enhancements in redundancy technologies, such as V-ON, traffic management, and real-time event notifications. With these new functionalities, Moxa's switches are enable higher network availability and reliability, which is crucial for mission-critical applications.

SeeTec physical security solutions secure oil and gas industry
SeeTec physical security solutions secure oil and gas industry

SeeTec video technology helps to detect situations at an early stage and thus assists in avoiding consequences Despite of the development of alternative and renewable energies, oil and gas still represent the engine of the world economy. Exploration takes place under increasingly challenging conditions often in remote locations. Security requirements, already high, continue to rise. This is not surprising as incidents during up-, mid- and downstream processing can cause immense damage to people and the environment. Video technology systems from SeeTec help detecting situations at an early stage and thus assist in avoiding consequences – at all process levels. SeeTec Cayuga for staff safety Video technology is generally used on drilling vessels and –platforms to monitor the drilling and mining process and to ensure the staff’s safety. SeeTec Cayuga can easily be integrated into this process and also into higher level systems such as DCS for example. Video is then a part of an overall solution using TCP triggers or I/O modules to communicate with the sensor- and control technology. If for example a sensor detects high pressure in the system, an automatic video fly-out window showing video streams of relevant areas is displayed on the screens in the control room. SeeTec Cayuga also supports thermal cameras. Using them, high temperatures can be detected based on the colours displayed. Using video technology critical situations can be detected and validated much faster, giving staff more time to react on the basis of more information. Video analytics with SeeTec video management software Especially the transportation of gas and oil from the production sites to the refineries and the tank farms is a dangerous process. Big parts of overland pipelines lead over uninhabited areas without significant infrastructure, making the monitoring of leaks complicated. Also in politically unstable regions the risk of attacks is a serious threat. If the transportation is done by sea the risk of damage and harm affects not only the vessel but also has impact on the environment. Using SeeTec video management software pipelines are monitored permanently over long distances even if there is only low banded infrastructure. By using intelligent video analytics and by linking to process monitoring systems the attention of the security staff is drawn to possible dangers or incidents. SeeTec video systems provide protection for every need. With SeeTec the building perimeter is continuously monitored Perimeter protection with integrated security systems Next to the operational safety in refineries and production plants, safeguarding against unauthorised access is an important issue. SeeTec video systems provide protection for every need. With SeeTec the building perimeter is continuously monitored. Through the integrated video analytics and the additional analytics interface to third-party applications an automatic perimeter protection is supported. So, for example, a person trying to climb over the premises’ fences will be visualised automatically on the Client in the control room. A built-in license plate recognition solution and the integration of access control applications complement the SeeTec range. In the refinery the video system can also be seamlessly integrated into production processes. It is possible to trigger alarms or other actions over sensors or management systems by using TCP signals or I/O-modules. SeeTec’s modular architecture makes it easy for the product portfolio to grow with increasing demands and/or the growing operational areas. Using distributed installations it is possible to combine several locations to just one bandwidth-optimised system. An extended safety structure ensures that the system keeps on recording images and stays in operational mode even if the management or recording server fails. Retail security Gas stations are at the end of the value chain. They are not struggling with process safety but with robberies and thefts. SeeTec delivers video solutions, which perfectly reflect the branch structure of such a business. SeeTec keeps the costs for the camera infrastructure low by realising a bandwidth-saving usage involving several locations and by using intelligent camera features (VCAM). At the gas station the video technology can also be connected directly to the business processes, so for instance it is possible to combine the video images coming from the pump or the cash area with the accounting data by using the SeeTec POS-Interface. With the automatic license plate recognition a petrol theft can be identified easily – if a car, which already was registered with a tank fraud, is recognised in front of a gas pump, the pump can be locked. Benefits  Modular and flexibly expandable solution Support of a great number of cameras of all leading manufacturers (incl. thermal cameras, LPR cameras, outdoor cameras for special requirements) Integrated video analytics and license plate recognition Communication with third-party systems using TCP signals or I/O modules (Moxa, Adam etc.) Easy handling and operation, also on touch-based systems or mobile devices Project experiences and certifications in the oil & gas-sector

Moxa's formal education and certification program launched
Moxa's formal education and certification program launched

The Moxa University aims to ensure smooth knowledge transfer across the supply and value chains The new Moxa University is a formal education and certification program to impart profound knowledge of network design, installation and maintenance to Moxa´s distribution partners. Moxa's increasingly strong footprint in industrial installations across Europe has been a major achievement, and a source of pride for Moxa´s European team. The reliable operation of these installations is Moxa´s primary objective. The Moxa University aims to ensure smooth knowledge transfer across the supply and value chains - from the developers of Moxa products to the customer´s network administrators. Formal training program that supports Moxa´s partners Industrial networks and their components, such as embedded computers, automation systems, or video surveillance devices are challenging microcosms far beyond the selection of reliable products. To anticipate and counteract their challenges, Steve Lin, Moxa Europe's General Manager, decided to establish a formal training program that supports Moxa´s partners, and ultimately Moxa´s customers, in achieving reliable industrial operation. "Moxa's aim has always been to provide reliable networks. Now we want to make sure that our customers learn how to convert our reliable products into reliable operation and consequently added value for themselves", says Steve Lin. “This is why we developed a training program that addresses our customer´s needs, and those of our partners, and our employees. They all can train to become `Moxa Certified Engineers´.” To ensure that the knowledge transfer can take place right where Moxa´s customers need it, Moxa reverts to their broad network of official distribution partners that all attend the annual Moxa Technical Certification trainings. The best of these Moxa Certified Engineers have recently undergone an additional train-the-trainer program. As a result, the first four graduates of the program, coming from Moxa distributors in Poland – Elmark Automation, Spain – Tempel Group, UK - IT4Automation & Croatia – Selmet, can now call themselves Moxa Certified Trainers and share their knowledge in so-called Moxa Training Centers. Centrally managed updated set of training materials The four distributors with Moxa Training Centers form the basis of a growing network of Moxa Authorised Training Centers situated in close proximity to Moxa´s European customers. They benefit from a centrally managed, continually updated set of training materials that include the experience and expert knowledge of the Moxa Certified Trainers all over the continent.

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