CCTV Video Printers(30)
Hanwha Techwin’s Wisenet PNM-9000VD multi-sensor/multi-directional camera provides quality images and modular lens configuration at an affordable price. This camera supports 30fps image capture and true 120 dB WDR without compromising frame rate for each of its two 5MP sensors. Each sensor has its own Wisenet 5 chip, providing a full suite of built-in video analytics including loitering, directional detection, fog detection, tampering, motion detection and objects entering or exiting an area.
AI series products adopt the most advanced AI technologies, including deep learning algorithms that primarily target people and vehicles, which provides higher flexibility and accuracy for end-users. This enables the Dahua AI series to offer various advanced applications such as Face Recognition, Metadata, traffic data statistics, etc. The complete lineup of Dahua AI includes network (PTZ) cameras, network video recorders, servers, and more devices. Beyond seeing the world, the power of AI allows devices to perceive the environment and understand the world in a better way. System Overview Dahua PTZ AI network camera adopts advanced CNN deep learning algorithms to support face recognition with high accuracy. The Dual 4MP Starlight Smart Capture Camera consists of panoramic camera and PTZ camera. Panoramic camera captures panoramas, and then PTZ camera takes detailed snapshots of objects and keeps tracking objects after rule violations occur. This camera possess wide monitor range and PFA algorithm that can always present a clear, focused image while zooming. Functions Dual PTZ systemPanoramic camera and Detail camera of the dual PTZ system can be adjusted horizontally and vertically. Face RecognitionOnce facial features are extracted from captured faces, they are stored in a database where they can be easily searched and compared against other images. Once a successful match is found, the system outputs the result. The Dahua Face Recognition camera supports a built-in database that stores up to 10,000 facial images, helping the camera achieve realtime face capture and comparison. Starlight TechnologyFor challenging low-light applications, Dahua's Starlight Ultra-low Light Technology offers best-in-class light sensitivity, capturing color details in low light down to 0.001 lux. The camera uses a set of optical features to balance light throughout the scene, resulting in clear images in dark environments. PFA TechnologyPFA technology has innovatively introduced new methods of judgment to ensure the accuracy and predictability of the direction of subject distance adjustment. The result is a set of advanced focusing algorithms. PFA ensures clarity of the image throughout the process of zooming and shortens focus time. The realization of PFA technology substantially improves user experience and increases product value. MetadataMetadata is feature attribute information extracted from a target object which can be used for data retrieval. There are four kinds of metadata supported by Dahua PTZ AI camera: human face, human body, motor vehicle and non-motor vehicle metadata. Facial information includes gender, age, glasses, masks, beards, etc. Human body information includes hat, top, top color, bottom, bottom color, bag, etc. Motor vehicle information includes plate color, type, vehicle color, sunshield, ornament, calling, seatbelt, smoking, annual inspection sticker, etc. Non-motor vehicle information includes type, color, top type, top color, people number, etc. Smart trackingHuman, motor vehicle, and non-motor vehicle, or their combinations can be set as objects. Once the objects selected trigger detection rules (like tripwire and intrusion), the detail camera will track them automatically. Perimeter ProtectionAutomatically filtering out false alarms caused by animals, rustling leaves, bright lights, etc. Enables system to act secondary recognition for the targets. Improving alarm accuracy. InteroperabilityThe camera conforms to the ONVIF (Open Network Video Interface Forum) specifications, ensuring interoperability between network video products regardless of manufacturer.
VIVOTEK ‘s new CC9381-HV is a 180-degress panoramic network camera, featuring its compact design and high-quality image capability, making it suitable for a wide array of both indoor and outdoor environments, such as boutiques, convenience stores, banks, schools and homes. Along with offering amazing 180° HFOV coverage, CC9381-HV offers up to 20 fps at 5-Megapixel resolution (30 fps at 5MP with WDR Off). This Panoramic Network Camera also incorporates other value-added features.With IR built-in 180° IR illuminators up to 15 meters, no matter day or night, light or dark, the new CC9381-HV always provides complete video security. Further, due to the SNV technology, areas of low light visibility are no longer an issue either. Equipped with WDR Pro technology, the CC9381-HV enable the camera to maintain optimal image quality and unparalleled visibility in high contrast lighting environments, as well as combined both H.265 and VIVOTEK Smart Stream III, it can reduce bandwidth and storage consumption more than 90% compared to traditional H.264 without smart streaming. In addition to its versatile coverage and features, the CC9381-HV is safeguarded by Trend Micro IoT Security to provide users with higher levels of network protection.
Consider your security needs met. The experts in thermal and perimeter security have packed everything you need into one affordable, easy-to-install camera. The FLIR Saros DH-390 Dome Camera includes IR and visible illuminators, plus Lepton thermal sensors to allow you to see in any condition. And with high-resolution video, you’ll never miss a thing.
The Contera NVR Appliance from Arecont Vision Costar is designed to offer powerful IP recording in an affordable, compact chassis. The Contera NVR Appliance is equipped with an on-board 8 or 16 channel PoE switch, that can be upgraded to 24 channels, allowing for Plug and Play connection with ConteraWS® or ONVIF cameras. With full integration to Contera Web Services, the Contera NVR Appliance offers centralised user management, single sign-on convenience, mobile apps and a web client that allows for easy remote connection to your recorders. Network setup is fast and easy using Contera Web Services, and eliminates the need for port forwarding or DDNS. The Contera NVR Appliance runs on a secure Linux OS and comes preloaded with ConteraVMS® Server software as a turnkey solution.
The Evolution Stainless Steel cameras, part of Oncam’s Specialist Camera Range, are unique to the 360-degree video surveillance market as they are the only ones certified for tough environments, indoor and outdoor. The 05MP and 12MP versions have been specifically designed to meet the needs of customers operating in demanding environments such as Food Processing, Industrial, Maritime and Ports and Safe City applications. The cameras’ resilient Stainless Steel 316 housing is manufactured for enhanced corrosion resistance. The IP66, IP67, IP68, IP69K, and NEMA 4X and 6P ratings make the enclosure fit for harsh environments, while its IK10+ rating makes it resistant to impacts of 40 joules. The NSF certification and HCV EU mark make the camera range unique, guaranteeing compliance with standards for commercial food equipment in both North America as well as Europe. The only 360-degree fisheye camera in a stainless steel housing, Oncam’s new and improved camera range is available for surface and pendant mount installations. A matching stainless steel arm allows for wall, corner and pole mounting. Evolution 05 Stainless Steel: EVO-05-SS2 Evolution 12 Stainless Steel: EVO-12-SS2
Hikvision has launched a new Fisheye IP camera series (DS-2CD63X5G0) with AI. This 360˚ panoramic camera uses the deep learning technology to deliver a more accurate heat map functionality. It gives an enhanced view of its surroundings – and is especially useful in large retail applications. The cameras’ 360˚ panoramic image of the scene before it, means the user can see a wider area much more clearly. This is enhanced by independent control of a three-way infrared light, which can be separately configured to reduce the amount of ‘reflective’ wall space. This improves image quality, especially when placed in a corner location. The deep learning algorithm focuses only on human targets, improving the accuracy of the heat map functionality. This means users can see ‘hotspots’ in a space, showing areas that people visit, or pass, the most. An added layer to the heat map visualisation makes it a lot clearer than previous technologies, presenting more information in a clearer way. Despite the high quality of the images, the cameras boast extremely light bandwidth, saving storage and costs by using H265+ compression technology. They also support Multiple Expansion Modes, with up to 15 live view display modes available, designed for three different mounts. This means they can be more easily adjusted to meet the users’ exact preferences, and improve their browsing experience. Other features include: New Immervision lens (only 12MP, 1.29mm lens model) Up to 12MP resolution 120 dB WDR Up to 15m IR range Built-in microphone and speaker Smart features: 6 behaviour analyses, and 3 exception detections IK10/IP66 available. The cameras will be a useful addition to retail solutions, with heat mapping helping owners to understand customers’ psychology and identify which products attract the most attention on the shop floor. They can also be used in other large area applications, like train stations and public squares. The series will also be a boon to installers, with the ability to achieve monitoring which has no ‘dead angles’, making the solution more efficient and reducing installation costs. “We pride ourselves on continually advancing our technology and how it is implemented”, says Peter Guan, Director of Channel Sales and Marketing for Hikvision Europe. “This new Fisheye camera will provide clear flow information that will help users to make the right business decisions to make their spaces much more profitable.”
The Evolution 180 Indoor camera is built upon Oncam’s expertise and heritage on 360-degree technology. It’s been specifically designed for applications that require a dewarped panoramic view of a scene, without blind spots, from a single sensor camera. The 5:2 Panoramic+ stream provides a perfect balance between image quality and bandwidth efficiency. In addition, when mounting on an angle, Oncam’s Angle Compensation Technology (ACT) corrects the view, straightening vertical lines in the scene. The true day/night functionality allows images to be produced in all lighting conditions, including additional IR lighting. The camera is provided with three different mounting back boxes (0°, 25° and 45°), which also double up as pendant mount. EVO-180-WID (White) / EVO-180-WJD (Black)
Increase safety and reduce risk on board your transit vehicles with March Networks® RideSafe MT Series IP Recorders. These all-IP units deliver highly-reliable video surveillance recording and management in a compact, rugged design that is ideal for mid-sized vehicles – like student and patient shuttles and paratransit buses. Available in 4-channel and 6-channel models, the RideSafe MT Series solution enables operators to capture everything that’s happening on the bus, inside and out. Whether you have one or a thousand vehicles, this plug-and-play recorder can operate as a standalone unit programmable through embedded software, or be remotely managed and monitored daily using March Networks Command™ for Transit video management software. Video from the recorder can also be integrated with existing CAD and AVL systems and mobile routers. Key RideSafe MT Series features include: Front panel LEDs for easy recorder diagnostics, including operational, recording and video export status Embedded Linux OS, to ensure reliable and secure video recording Real-time health monitoring, alerting operators to camera, recorder and network issues before they affect performance Vehicle metadata integration from CAD/AVL systems and accelerometers for accurate re-enactments, driver monitoring and investigations Configurable recording policies based on schedule, motion, incident/event and other user-definable variables Powerful video management software, providing the advanced tools and features needed to manage entire fleets Automated video and data extraction over WiFi or 4G networks Extended thermal range (ETR) models available
Z3 Smart Camera Home Security System is the ideal solution for the small to mid-size home owner who is looking for a comprehensive smart home security system with boundless expandability. With so many sensors and accessories out in the market, how can a user find what they need to start off with? The multifunctional Z3 Smart Camera Security System provides an all-in-one solution with built-in basics, including 1080p HD Camera, PIR motion, temperature, humidity, and ambient lux light sensors, and two-way clear voice intercom system with echo cancellation feature. Z3 is compatible with RF, ZigBee and Z-Wave accessories, supporting up to 160 wireless sensors, to create endless possibilities to help users to create comprehensive smart home security. Add on voice prompt, loud siren, and backup battery, Z3 makes it possible to provide comprehensive smart home security services, including remote management, home security, live visual monitoring, home automation, energy management and emergency monitoring, designed to bring all-around convenience, comfort and safety. Z3 brings a complete and cost-effective smart home solution for users to experience a secure, and comfortable lifestyle. Features Communication Path: IP (Ethernet), WiFi, 3G/4G Built-in Protocol Options: RF, ZigBee, Z-Wave Two area configurations, supports up to 160 zones Alarm event reporting via CID/SIA Email / SMS /Push Notification via Cloud Server Camera: 1920x1080p high-resolution with 152° diagonal wide-angle lens Temperature Sensor: detects temperature from -10°C~ 50°C (14°F~ 122°F) Humidity Sensor: humidity range 0 ~ 100%RH PIR Motion Sensor: 7m range @ 100° degrees Ambient Light Sensor: detects light lux levels Home Security capabilities Security Visual Verification and Real-time Monitoring & Reporting ZigBee and Z-Wave based home automation capabilities Energy Management capabilities 24/7 Environment Emergency Monitoring Built-in siren, voice prompt, microSD slot Remote management via Smartphone App and Web browser Specifications ZigBee Protocol: ZigBee Pro HA 1.2, 2.4GHz Z-Wave Protocol: Z-Wave 868.40MHz (EU) / 908.40MHz (US) RF Frequencies: 433 MHz / 868MHz Wi-Fi Module: 802.11 b/g/ n 4G Frequencies: 2100 / 2600 / 1900 / 1800 / 900 / 850 / 700MHz Power Supply: 12V/2A, 100~240VAC Backup Battery: 7.2V, 1600mA NiMh rechargeable battery pack Backup Battery Life: 15 hours* Siren: 95dB @ 1m Memory Card Slot: MicroSD card Operating Temperature: -10° to 45°C (14°F to 113°F) Operating Humidity: Up to 85% non-condensing
VIVOTEK ‘s new MA9322-EHTV is a multi-sensor adjustable dome network camera. Featuring four independent 5MP CMOS Sensors with IR illuminators, the MA9322-EHTV allows users to simultaneously view four different areas while occupying only a single IP address, making this camera ideally suited for surveillance in areas such as hallway intersections, building corners, parking garages/lots, and shopping malls. It reduces the total number of cameras needed for surveillance, helping to lower total installation time and costs. By adding IR illumination up to 30 meters, no matter day or night, light or dark, the new MA9321-EHTV always provides complete video security. Further, due to the SNV technology, areas of low light visibility are no longer an issue either. The MA9322-EHTV is equipped with a removable IR-cut filter and WDR Pro technology, enabling the camera to maintain optimal image quality and unparalleled visibility in high contrast lighting environments, as well as combined both H.265 and VIVOTEK Smart Stream III, the MA9322-EHTV can reduce bandwidth and storage consumption more than 90%* compared to traditional H.264 without smart streaming. In addition to its versatile coverage and features, the MA9322-EHTV is safeguarded by Trend Micro IoT Security to provide users with higher levels of network protection
VIVOTEK's newly designed MS9321-EHV multi-sensor panoramic network camera applies the brand new Robocop design with built-in sunshield to cover four 5-megapixel sensors in 65-degree vertical field of view and support IR illuminators effective up to 30 meters. It offers the highest resolution and maximum field of view, reducing the total number of cameras required and helping save on the installation costs. Furthermore, the MS9321-EHV is also safeguarded by Trend Micro IoT Security. Featuring 4 x 5MP CMOS Sensors, the multiple sensor network camera can monitor full 180° horizontal views and deliver the highest-quality comprehensive coverage, making it an ideal outdoor surveillance solution with excellent image details. Improving on the previous version, the MS9321-EHV now includes H.265 compression for reduced bandwidth and storage over H.264 compression. WDR Pro (120dB) has been added for improved image quality in high contrast environments. Smart IR II is included for manual or auto IR adjustments based on different night viewing scenarios. And last but not least, the MS9321-EHV is capable of 30fps at all resolutions including the max 20MP. Like its predecessor MS8391-EV, the MS9321-EHV has the Video Alignment feature that allows you to adjust the positioning and image quality of each sensor, enabling users to view a seamless picture, with no repetition. MS9321-EHV's new housing design is IP66 and IK10-rated to enable use in rain and dust as well as to protect against vandalism or tampering. The new housing design also allows for more tilt and pan during installation, allowing for more versatility.
Hikvision has launched a new Thermal Bullet camera (DS-2TD2117) that boasts Deep Learning capabilities and a new sensor that improves the quality of its images. This product brings thermal technology to a lower budget scenario, making it practical for smaller solutions. Developing earlier versions, the DeepinView camera is equipped with a new improved 160 x 120 pixel sensor in the Hikvision family. The camera is also more sensitive – detecting to a noise-equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 40mk (previous models went to 50mk). NETD is an industry standard measurement of a sensor’s sensitivity to thermal radiation in certain parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Based on deep learning algorithms, the camera also delivers powerful and accurate behavior analysis, including detections such as line crossing, intrusion, region entrance and exit. The intelligent human/vehicle detection feature helps reduce false alarms caused by animals, camera shake, falling leaves, or other irrelevant objects, significantly improving alarm accuracy. In addition, the cameras are equipped with a built-in GPU. This high-performance GPU can support updates with more complex algorithms with larger data samples in the future to further improve the intelligent effect of Video Content Analytics (VCA). Other features include: Reliable temperature exception alarm function Advanced fire detection and smoking detection algorithm 160 x 120 resolution sensor, high sensitivity sensor, support contrast adjustment Shutter adjustment in various modes 3D DNR, 15 palettes of color adjustable, image detail enhancement. The camera’s short focal length (3mm or 6mm) makes it a crucial element in smaller perimeter solutions, like yards or car parks for small businesses. Its fire protection capabilities come in handy in solutions like warehouse and rubbish dumps, where avoiding fire is a priority. In essence, this camera can reduce costs, and prevent damage but also, more importantly, can increase safety by detecting potential fires before they happen. “Our R&D Center is 10,000 strong and this is a great example of how they are pushing forward the boundaries of technology”, says Peter Guan, Director of Channel Sales and Marketing for Hikvision Europe. “Using a new thermal sensor means that we can deliver a more sensitive, and so more effective, product to customers.”
VIVOTEK’s IB9387-LPR camera is a standalone LPR camera system, featuring built-in license plate recognition software and edge-computing capability without additional server, the IB9387-LPR can identify license plates from over 70 countries around the world. It converts number plates into Wiegand signals for use with an access control system, and also offers various APIs for integration with 3rd party systems such as parking management, toll collection, and weighbridge systems. The system is ideally applied for parking access control and Stop & Go toll systems or any LPR applications where a vehicle stops, or almost comes to a complete stop. Supported Both Simple and Complex Scenarios The IB9387-LPR camera can work as an embedded access control application based on LPR software. It can trigger digital output device on this camera when a number plate is recognised and matched the data in list such as white list. This IB9387-LPR camera can convert number plates into Wiegand signals to work with access control system. Centralised List Management With a black & white list embedded inside the IB9387-LPR, the control barrier will open the gate when a white list vehicle is detected. On the other hand, a black list vehicle will trigger an alarm and a notification will be sent to security staff. With VIVOTEK’s IB9387-LPR, security staffs of parking lots with multiple entry points no longer need to upgrade system one after another. They can simply upload these lists to a single centralised LPR camera and all the other LPR cameras will download the master list, thus significantly reducing both installation time and maintenance efforts. Easily Integrated with 3rd Party Systems Thanks to its various Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), third-party systems such as parking management, toll collection, and weighbridge systems are able to receive live LPR images with specific country, state, date, time, and confidence level from IB9387-LPR. Finally, the sophisticated camera is safeguarded by Trend Micro IoT Security, providing proactive protection in cybersecurity. Combining recognition and management technology, VIVOTEK’s IB9387-LPR offers an intelligent, scalable and highly secure standalone LPR system.
The IDIS 12MP Super Fisheye camera delivers 360° HD surveillance, with clear identification from center to edge and wall to wall. Built-in IR LEDs ensure nearly 50-ft night visibility, with support for true WDR up to 120dB. It offers camera-side and client-side dewarping (including on smartphones), giving users the widest choice of recording platforms and VMS options. And the groundbreaking ease and accuracy of IDIS's Smart UX Controls v2.0 allows for effortless dewarping, including agile PTZ in a dewarped state. The Super Fisheye also offers the benefit of IDIS Intelligent Codec with MAT, delivering up to 90% storage and bandwidth savings.
Video printer products updated recently
Datacard CP80 PLUS CARD PRINTER video printer with theft-deterrent software and a hardware lock system
Comprehensive and robust security programmes and policies are required for adequate data security Over the last decade, we have entered a new era of physical and logical access control. We are now living in an increasingly mobile world where our phones do more than just make a simple call – employees can now open doors and enter secure areas, as well as access computers, corporate data networks and associated information assets with just a single mobile device. Furthermore, the cloud, and access to cloud-based services is becoming almost a fundamental requirement for businesses. This, combined with advanced personal mobiles such as Near Field Communication (NFC)-enabled ones increasingly being used beyond conventional uses, is naturally driving a change in how organisations view, deliver and manage security, explains Alan Davies VP Sales – EMEA, Identity Assurance, HID Global. A big change pertaining to security management is that identity no longer needs to be restricted to a single plastic card or security token. We often think about identity solely in terms of the card or token that carries it; however with more and more companies placing accessible data in the cloud and allowing employees to use NFC-enabled smartphones for physical access purposes in the workplace, ‘identity’ is now taking many different shapes. For example, a smartphone being used as a ‘digital key’ to open doors and tag-in to work locations eliminates the need for employees to carry any other credentials. Of course, this raises questions about how to ensure that any assigned identities can be trusted. Fortunately, the issue of managing virtualised credentials in the business environment is achievable. Take mobile for example. This can be done by implementing a trusted identity framework that creates a secure boundary within communications between the devices, such as when a smartphone interacts with an NFC reader or NFC enabled end-point device. It acts as a secure vault, which delivers the agreed corporate security policy to the devices in use. If this is accepted, then it is deemed to be trusted and the user is allowed access. Another benefit is that NFC-enabled physical access control makes it easier to track who is entering and exiting monitored access points throughout the workplace. Employers can then be assured that all endpoints and all of the systems in between are valid before allowing entry into the building. Data protection and management in the cloud For organisations investing in the cloud, in order for them to unlock its true value, they need to address exactly where Security strategies should be customised to fit an organisations unique data protection needs sensitive data is stored and consider the user risk factor, including the way in which they wish to access the information. Though the rise of the cloud for enterprise data storage and application-hosting has changed the way IT professionals interact with their users, their networks and their data, the fundamentals of data protection remain the same. What many organisations fail to realise is that a one-size-fits-all approach to data protection is insufficient. Traditionally, enterprises have focused on securing the network perimeter, and relied on static passwords to authenticate users internally, within the firewall or externally via a virtual private network (VPN). However, taking into account the diverse nature of modern threats – from Advanced Persistent Threats (APTs) to ad hoc hacking and the internal risks that come with the mass adoption of BYOD– organisations are increasingly re-evaluating and re-assessing their IT security strategy to adapt to these changing needs. Two-factor authentication measures have typically been confined to physical devices like one-time password (OTP) tokens and display cards, but thanks to a variety of technological advancements these are being replaced by ‘soft tokens’ that can be held directly on the user device such as a mobile phone or tablet, or alternatively as browser-based tokens. Additionally, these mobile tokens can be combined with cloud app single-sign-on capabilities, not only fulfilling the same function of more classic two-factor authentication models but also providing convenient streamlined access to multiple cloud apps – all from one device. Merging management of logical and physical security infrastructure Ultimately, the security landscape is constantly evolving and mobile access control, as well as remote data access to cloud based applications, is growing in significance, making the right security investment a more important decision than ever before. It is critical for enterprises to have an extremely secure mobile and cloud identity environment so that transactions between the employee-owned phones or corporate-issued devices and the door they intend to unlock, or network they access, are conducted in a secure manner. Merging the management of both logical and physical security infrastructures, so that their operations are conducted via one platform, is integral to keeping pace with the paradigm shift that technological advancements such as NFC have made possible in the workplace. Furthermore, by deploying just one security device for both logical and physical access control , enterprises will not only realise cost savings, but will gain greater security control, as there will be a single point of revocation for all access rights. Building security systems that take into account the many routes to confidential data – whether it is at the physical door, on the network or in the cloud – is essential. Only by implementing comprehensive and robust and layered security programmes and policies that cover all three areas, while allowing for new technologies and applications, will organisations be confident that their data is adequately secure.
Resolution quality must be considered when assessing surveillance effectiveness Surveillance cameras are becoming more and more commonplace, especially in busy metropolitan locales. Police and detectives hope to reduce crime rates by keeping a watchful eye on civilians but CCTV has only been helpful in solving a small percentage of crimes. Mike Lewis, Country Manager UK for CCTV manufacturer MOBOTIX AG, highlights key considerations for improving the efficiency of existing surveillance systems.In May of 2008, Detective Chief Inspector Mike Neville, head of Scotland Yard's Visual Images, Identifications and Detections Office (Viido) became the UK's first senior police officer to challenge the misconception around CCTV's role in reducing crime. Speaking at Security Document World Conference in London, the Chief Inspector said: "Billions of pounds have been spent on kit, but no thought has gone into how the police are going to use the images and how they will be used in court. It's been an utter fiasco." Neville also pointed out that only 3 per cent of London's street robberies had been solved using CCTV images. A low figure considering the capital is one of the most densely populated areas of CCTV coverage anywhere in the world. Identifying problems with existing CCTV surveillance systems Mike Lewis, UK Country Manager for CCTV manufacturer Mobotix AG believes that the problem stems from a fundamental issue of image quality. "For many organisations CCTV is treated as a ‘check-box' item with little thought given to how a CCTV installation can help the police solve crimes. Criminals are not stupid and a deterrent is simply not enough; the technology has to be able to gather evidence to help the police secure convictions." Lewis points out that the majority of CCTV installations in the UK still use old analogue technology with barely a fifth of the resolution found in a basic camera phone. "If a CCTV system, say covering a street outside a jewellers', captures a car pulling up and three men brandishing shotguns marching into the shop - unless you have the resolution to capture the license plate, or some distinguishing features of each masked robber, or audio capture to get a voice print - the system is pretty worthless." Mandating changes in surveillance video resolution requirements The industry also is "less than opaque" when it comes to selling CCTV in his view. "Many vendors will play down high resolution as not necessary or too expensive to implement without actually explaining that it is exactly these high resolution images and audio capture that will help police make successful prosecution where a grainy image would simply be thrown out of court." "Billions of pounds have been spent on kit, but no thought has gone into how the police are going to use the images and how they will be used in court" Lewis points to the continent as an example of where UK CCTV market needs to learn from. In France for example, under anti-terrorism laws pioneered after the 7/7 tube bombings in London, all government building and high risk areas are legally required to have CCTV of a high resolution and retain data for up to 30 days. In Germany, all banks are required to deploy high resolution CCTV to monitor customers, staff and financial transactions in every branch. [It will be very useful to define what is classified as "high resolution" or the minimum resolutions that are acceptable in these countries] MOBOTIX, which only sells fully-digital high resolution CCTV camera systems believes that the potential of CCTV to reduce crime won't be fulfilled unless either the government, police or even third parties such as insurers, licensing boards or trade associations insist that end users deploy a better resolution capture, coverage and video storage and retrieval. "There will be another wave of CCTV installation heading up to the Olympics, so as a nation, we have a perfect opportunity to set a CCTV standard that meets the needs of police, local government and end users to help us reduce crime and secure more prosecution off the back of CCTV evidence,"comments Lewis. Lewis believes CCTV would be able to help solve more crimes if they had higher resolutions "The technology is not the barrier and newer CCTV systems with hemispheric (360 degree) fields of view will allow end users to actually deploy fewer security cameras while maintaining better resolution and wider coverage - the problem is still trying to persuade people that CCTV can catch criminals and not just scare them away." Optimising CCTV for solving and prevention of crime Lewis offers some constructive suggestions on how to improve CCTV's effectiveness as a crime prevention and evidence gathering tool. "There are an estimated 4 million CCTV cameras in the UK but where they all are, what they record and accessibility to these video archives is mostly unknown - having a register of CCTV for use by the police would help them to quickly gather post incident evidence." The idea of CCTV built into the environment was the theme of the 200 Secured by Design' (SBD) initiative that has been adopted by parts of the building industry to promote crime prevention measures like CCTV in development design. The initiative was endorsed by the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO), and has the backing of the Home Office Crime Reduction Unit. However, for police gathering information after an incident, there is no easy way to locate CCTV installations in any given area. The industry also is "less than transparent" when it comes to selling CCTV in his view Most CCTV systems installed in the UK use a centralised approach. Each surveillance camera is effectively dumb with the image processing, access to footage and storage taking place at a remote location. In smaller environments, this could be a DVR simply recording everything on a 24-hour loop. In larger campuses or city centres, this is often a dedicated control room monitored 24 hours a day. Instead Lewis argues that a decentralised approach that places more intelligence into the CCTV camera would allow greater accessibility by third parties such as the police and emergency services. "With a decentralised system, private companies could allow the police to quickly add their local cameras into a centrally managed grid." In this method, if an incident occurs, the police CCTV control centre could patch an instant video feed from the nearest available CCTV camera. With a decentralised approach, each CCTV camera becomes an access point on an IP network and can be shared by multiple agencies in a more cost effective approach. "This might sound a bit hi-tech, but it is technically possible," explains Lewis. To give an analogy, when the police receive a 999 call, the dispatcher is automatically informed of the location of the caller from the Caller Line Identification system which cross references a database of addresses of each of the 25 million public and private landlines installed in the UK. "A similar system where the police type in a post code and are presented with secure access to video feeds from all decentralised CCTV installations in an area would be a potentially society changing tool for fighting crime." High risk areas in France were legally required to have high resolution CCTV following London Tube bombings Considerations for realising CCTV's full security potential Lewis also believes: "All CCTV cameras should have a minimum mandated image quality with all information stored in a digital format for a minimum of 7 days that can be easily accessed by the police for evidence gathering." Many police forces around the country already have voluntary guidelines for business deploying CCTV and several have made CCTV installation a condition of alcohol or gaming licences. However this policy has successfully been challenged by landlords and upheld by Information Commissioner as potentially in conflict with the data protection act. Unfortunately, Lewis believes for any of these measures to work, there needs to be stronger backing from the government: "There is obviously a fear of creating an oppressive surveillance society but we have regulation for other areas like fire prevention, road safety, disabled access and a host of other health and safety issues - why CCTV, which has the potential to protect lives, is treated differently is a complete mystery to me." Mike LewisUK ManagerMobotix AG
Bandwidth is an important consideration for CCTV systems to reach their full potential Most surveillance systems today transmit data over IP networks. As manufacturers continue to improve the capabilities of CCTV systems, the amount of traffic travelling on a network becomes increasingly large. Bandwidth is a key consideration in managing surveillance systems and ensuring their full potential is reached. In this article, Bosch discusses the importance of bandwidth and how to estimate the amount of bandwidth needed for a particular CCTV system. What is bandwidth and why is it important? Modern-day CCTV systems increasingly use IP networks to send video from one point to another (for example, from a camera to a Video Management System typically running on a PC). IP networks are an attractive medium for transporting video because one cable can carry the video from many cameras. These networks also serve a multi-functional purpose because the same cable can carry video as well as two-way audio, alarm signals, relay signals, PTZ commands, and serial data. With Power over Ethernet, the cable can even carry power to the camera. This greatly simplifies the multitude of cables usually required. However, the network is limited by the amount of traffic it can carry - known as bandwidth, which is measured in bits per second (bps). The table below shows the three kinds of star-topology Ethernet networks in common use today. Name Also known as Bandwidth 10Base-T Standard Ethernet 10 Mbps (Megabits per second) 100Base-T Fast Ethernet 100 Mbps 1000Base-T Gigabit Ethernet 1,000 Mbps or 1 Gbps Video over IP consumes a large amount of bandwidth. As a rough guide, one camera might consume between 100 kbps and 2 Mbps - compare this to audio, which typically consumes only 80 kbps. This explains the immediate success of Voice over IP. The factors that affect bandwidth consumption are described in the table below. Factor Description Examples Video compression method Typically temporal or spatial compression MPEG-4, M-JPEG, Wavelet, and MPEG-2 Frame rate Images per second 1-30 IPS Image resolution The number of horizontal and vertical pixels QCIF, CIF, 2CIF, 4CIF (also known as full D1) Scene activity level The amount of activity in the camera's field of view Low, medium, and high Quiet time The fraction of time where there is no movement (important for temporal compression algorithms like MPEG-4 because neglibible bandwidth is consumed during quiet time) 8:00 pm - 6:00 am Monday - Friday, all day Saturday and Sunday, equates to about 50% quiet time If you run out of bandwidth on your network, you will start to experience the following: Video artefacts (e.g., blocks in MPEG and M-JPEG, and increased fuzziness in Wavelet) Frames may get dropped, making the video appear choppy The video resolution may drop from 4CIF to 2 CIF or even CIF, making the picture less clear The video may freeze entirely and lose the connection temporarily What is the relationship between bandwidth and disk storage? A single IP network cable can carry video from many surveillance cameras and also carry out multiple functions They are directly related. If video is being transmitted at a certain bit-rate across a network to be stored, then it will consume disk space at exactly the same rate. For example, a 1 Mbps video stream will use 1 Mb (Megabit) of space in one second, or about 1/8 = 0.125 Megabytes per second, which equates to 0.125 x 3,600 = 450 Megabytes per hour (about 11 GB per day or 75 GB per week). How do I know how much bandwidth I need? This is an excellent question, particularly because it is unanswerable with any certainty. As explained earlier, it depends on so many factors that you can really only estimate your bandwidth and/or rate of disk-space consumption. This initial guess is based on your experience with previous projects and it is useful - but the best way to predict your needs is to run the actual test. For example, consider planning an IP-based CCTV system for a school. How much bandwidth will the network need to carry for approximately 16 cameras, and how much disk space is required for seven days of recording? View larger image Graph showing results gained by capping the bit rate Capping the bit rate You can ‘cap' the bit rate of each IP camera or encoder so that it never uses more than that specified amount. Note that when capped, the actual bit-rate at any particular moment may be well below the ‘cap' limit. Advantage: Once you know the available disk space, you are guaranteed to get a predictable number of days of video. This is especially important for regulated environments. It is also good news for IT departments who want to know how much you are going to stress the network. Disadvantage: To not exceed the allowed bit rate, the IP camera or encoder has to do something if it finds itself over-stretched. Normally it has the option to either drop some of the frames or reduce the video resolution of the frames - but this can be an issue when the video quality you need has to be degraded under any circumstances. Unlimited bit rate View larger imageGraph showing the results of unlimited bit rate You can let the IP camera or encoder help itself to whatever bandwidth it needs. Advantage: Image quality never deteriorates. Disadvantage: Under certain conditions, the peak load on the IP network may cause problems. This "help yourself" policy also may allow disk space to be consumed faster than you anticipated, so you may not have as many days of video as you expected. Summary With conventional VCRs, it is easy to predict the amount of disk space required for a specified number of days of recording time. With DVRs and IP-based CCTV, it can also be easy to predict (by capping) - as long as you are comfortable with the possibility that the video quality may degrade under certain circumstances. If you overestimate your bit rates, you will end up paying for more storage than you need. The best way to predict your real needs is to pilot a small IP surveillance system (perhaps just one camera). Run it for a short while, then review the video and make any necessary adjustments. This is the most reliable way to get what you need and plan your infrastructure accordingly. In addition to better estimating, it is also important to remember the enormous value of Recording at the Edge, which keeps video off the network for recording. In such a scenario, the network is only used for live streaming and playback.View the Bandwidth quick reference guide Bosch Security Systems
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