Widely used in over 180 countries and regions around the world, Dahua’s products and solutions must be able to meet the demands of tough environments such as snowy mountains, plateaus, deserts, wetlands, rainforests and coastal regions. In order to achieve robust performance in the environment for which they were designed, Dahua’s products have undergone rigorous tests to meet very tough standards which in most cases exceed the normal industry practice and the datasheet specifications. The purpose is to provide sufficient margins to ensure the product provides the utmost reliability expected of Dahua products when performing in the field.

Toughness: withstanding physical impact whether natural or man made

Dahua video surveillance solutions, such as Smart City and Intelligent Building, are widely applied in many countries worldwide. Installed everywhere in our life, Dahua cameras may be exposed to physical impact. For example, when installed outdoors, the cameras are exposed to numerous risks, ranging from being hit by a basketball, small stones blowing in strong wind, to getting scratched by tree branches. Indoor cameras may be damaged by daily use or people intentionally throwing things at them. As shown by the test results, Dahua vandal proof cameras withstand the challenges in these scenarios, thereby reducing the cost of maintenance. Dahua vandal proof cameras withstand the challenges in tough scenarios, thereby reducing the cost of maintenance

Product Validation: Outdoor cameras have passed IK10 test (standard IEC62262) in which a steel ball weighing 5 kg is dropped from 40 cm above, generating 20 joules of impact energy on five separated spots on every exposed surface (including 3 impacts to the lens). For indoor cameras, the test level ranges from IK06 to IK10 (both standard IEC62262), which covers most possible scenarios.

Vibration: life span is unaffected

In some cases, Dahua cameras are required to work somewhere with high frequency vibration. For instance, places near railways, bridges with fast driving cars and strong crosswinds, or construction sites with piling. Dahua cameras, not only guarantee smooth operation, but also able to maintain the same lifespan. Even in extreme circumstances, such as car accidents, earthquakes or hurricanes, cameras will remain safely attached to the poles. Due to their strong structures, the possibility of accidents caused by falling cameras is eliminated.

Product Validation: All cameras are tested against a frequency of up to 200 Hz with 1G acceleration from X, Y, Z axes for 4.5 hours, ensuring they can function as usual. When it comes to hanging dome cameras, in order to make sure they won’t fall down in even some extreme cases, an extra test which triples the vibration rate is conducted whereby Dahua’s cameras can endure several times longer than the standard average. The cameras are designed to enjoy long working lifespan against tough temperatures

Temperature: reliability 10 degrees beyond the standard range

Inevitably, Dahua cameras are sometimes installed in extreme heat and freezing environments, be it factories that are hot during processing, or chilled-storage warehouses that are maintained cold, or deserts that are scorching hot during the day and freezing cold at night. Coldness and heat will cause shrinkage, which may very likely to shorten a camera’s lifespan. In addition to long hours of usage, the cameras are also designed to enjoy long working lifespan against these tough temperatures, saving the costs of repairing and replacing.

Product Validation: All Dahua cameras have been through low and high temperature, continuous operation test for no less than 16 hours (standard IEC62599-1) with spec temperature to guarantee product performance. Besides, all Dahua cameras have gone through intensified HALT (High Accelerated Life Test) and ALT (Accelerated Life Test) tests, to ensure that the cameras can properly work in -50℃ to 80℃, 10 degrees beyond the standard range (-40℃ to 70℃). This aims to trigger potential product failures from increased extreme environmental stress, helping to locate and improve the weaknesses and identify potential defects of our cameras at the earliest possible stage. No less than 3 cold starts were required in each of the tests. Via these unique tests, Dahua’s cameras come out as extra tough when used in practice. Even when installed in the most extreme environments imaginable, Dahua cameras bring along smooth and condensation-free operation

Humidity: not a hindrance

Extreme temperature and humidity are major threats to the smooth day-to-day functioning of intricate devices. But this is not the case for Dahua cameras. Even when they are installed in the most extreme environments imaginable, a snow mountain like Mount Everest, a tropic rainforest like Amazon Rainforest, or a desert like the Hobq Desert, where there are dramatic weather shifts, exacerbating humidity issues, they bring along smooth and condensation-free operation.

Product Validation: For fully enclosed cameras such as PTZ cameras, Eye Ball cameras, and Bullet cameras,

Alternating temperature and humidity tests (damp heat cyclic)

With temperatures varying between 25℃ and 55℃ and relative humidity reaching a maximum of 100% (camera surface allow condensation) were conducted for two cycles lasting a total of 48 hours. For cameras not fully enclosed, Steady Damp-heat Tests at 40℃ and 93% humidity (no condensation) were conducted for 96 hours. Both tests have been developed on the basis of International IEC Standards, ensuring that all cameras are capable of working with the humidity varying from 0 to 100%. Dahua cameras are able to resist long time waterfall as well as intentional or accidental manmade sprays

Waterproof: natural rain or man made spray

Working in regions and countries like northeast Indian, Burma and Sierra Leone which are known for abundant rainfall, or Asian cities that experience weeklong plum rains, Dahua cameras are able to resist long time waterfall as well as intentional or accidental manmade sprays.

Product Validation: Outdoor cameras are required to go through IPX6 or IPX7 tests. Standard IEC62262 IPX6 test requires camera surface to be sprayed by 100±5 L/min of water for 3 minutes. It is worth mentioning that Dahua cameras are tested for at least 10 minutes in the same conditions, 3 times tougher than the standard one.

In addition, Dahua has developed its own standards which include tests where, 5±0.5 L/min of water (equivalent of middle rain in plum rain season) was sprayed to cameras for 192 hours from above. On top of the water ingress tests, every Dahua camera needs to go through an airtightness test, too, to make sure that it is sufficiently water-proof.

Corrosion protection: quadruple of IEC standards

Dahua Port Solution and airport solution require the cameras to be installed in seaports and airports where it’s highly likely to be wet and salty. Salt spray and electrochemical effects may result in serious corrosion on metal surfaces, which may cause the fall of the cameras. However, Dahua cameras won’t be bothered by this problem. All of these tests ensure Dahua to deliver lasting performance for customers all over the globe

Product Validation: A salt water solution of 5% NaCl and pH 6.5 to 7.2 was sprayed for 2 hours, then a 40℃ and 93% damp heat test for 166 hours per cycle for 4 cycles over a period of 28 days, a remarkable performance of quadruple the International IEC Standards. It was in an effort to simulate the cyclic salt spray environment in coastal cities and to identify the likelihood of a camera falling following possible metal corrosion.

Tests ensuring lasting performance

In addition to the tests above, Dahua cameras have also passed a Drop Test that decreases the risks of damage during transportation; a Life-span Test that promises a life of at least 4 years in normal conditions; and a Dust Resistance Test ensuring a performance undisturbed by dust. Together, all of these tests ensure Dahua to deliver lasting performance for customers all over the globe. Demonstrating the mission to enable a Safer Society and Smarter Living, Dahua will continue to focus on “Innovation, Quality, and Service” to serve partners and customers around the world.

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2018 FIFA World Cup Russia integrates safety, security and service
2018 FIFA World Cup Russia integrates safety, security and service

The 2018 FIFA World Cup tournament is bringing 32 national teams and more than 400,000 foreign football fans from all over the world to 12 venues in 11 cities in Russia. Fans are crowding into cities including Moscow, St. Petersburg and Kazan. Given continuing global concerns about terrorism, security is top-of-mind. Protection of the World Cup games in Russia is focusing on an “integrated safety, security and service approach,” according to officials. Combining the term “security” with the terms “safety” and “service” is not an accident. An aggressive security stance is necessary, but at the end of the day, fan safety is paramount, and a service-oriented approach ensures a positive fan experience. Medical responders will be working side-by-side with police and antiterrorism personnel. Risk management best practices We asked Sean T. Horner and Ben Joelson, directors of the Chertoff Group, a global advisory firm focused on best practices in security and risk management, to comment on security at FIFA World Cup 2018. Although not involved in securing the 2018 World Cup, the Chertoff Group is experienced at securing large events and enterprises using risk management, business practices and security. Integration is another important aspect of protecting the games, says Horner. The use of multiple resources, including Russian military, intelligence and law enforcement, will be closely integrated to provide the best security for the large-scale event in each of the host cities, he says. The approach will be centralised and flexible, with resource deployment guided by effective situational awareness. Primary security and emergency operations centres will be dispersed throughout each host city “There is a unified command structure at the Russian Federation level, and they will keep resources in reserve and shift them as needed to various events and venues based on any specific intelligence, in effect deploying resources where threats are greatest,” says Joelson. “There will also be some regional commands, and resources will incorporate a spectrum of police and military personnel ranging from the ‘cop on the beat’ to the Spetsnaz, the Russian ‘special forces'.” Primary security and emergency operations centres will be dispersed throughout each host city, and additional forces can be shifted as necessary, he notes. Role of law enforcement In Russia, the lines of separation between law enforcement and the military are not as stark as in the United States, for example, where military forces are restricted from deployment for domestic law enforcement by the Posse Comitatus Act. In Russia, there is no such restriction.  A broad range of technology will play a role at the World Cup, Horner and Joelson agree. Technology will be used primarily as a force multiplier and a decision-support tool for security personnel. There are robust CCTV systems in many Russian cities, and mobile CCTV systems, such as camera towers or mobile security centres on wheels, will also be deployed. Technologies will include infrared cameras, flood lights, and ferromagnetic screening systems to scan hundreds of individuals as they walk by. In some locations, facial recognition systems will be used, tied into various intelligence, military and law enforcement databases of known bad actors. Behaviour analytics will be used as a decision-support tool. In addition to security in public areas, private CCTV systems in hotels, at transportation hubs, and inside the venues themselves will be leveraged. Video analytics and detection will help personnel review live view of people who may be acting suspiciously or who leave a bag unattended. In some locations, facial recognition systems will be used, tied into various intelligence, military and law enforcement databases of known bad actors Rigorous anti-terrorism measures A Fan ID card is required to enter the 2018 World Cup Tournament, even for Russian residents. The Russians have an aggressive stance against domestic terrorism, which will also help ensure the safety of the World Cup games, say Horner and Joelson. Terrorist group ISIS has promised “unprecedented violence” at the games, but they make similar threats at every major global event. Russia has been an active force disrupting ISIS in Syria, and experts suggest that losing ground geographically could lead to addition “asymmetric” terrorist attacks. However, Russia is leveraging all their intelligence resources to identify any plots and deploying their security apparatus to disrupt any planned attacks, experts say. Russia’s rigorous anti-terrorism measures include a total ban on planes and other flying devices (such as drones) around the stadiums hosting the World Cup. Private security In addition to military, intelligence and law enforcement personnel, private security will play a have a high profile during the 2018 World Cup in Russia. Private security personnel will be on the front lines in hotels and in “fan zones.” They will operate magnetometers at entrances, perform bag checks, enforce restrictions on hand-carried items, etc. Private security will be especially important to the “guest experience” aspects of protecting the games. Private security will be especially important to the “guest experience” aspects of protecting the games Another private security function at the World Cup is executive protection of dignitaries and high-net-worth individuals who will be attending. Executive protection professionals will arrive early, conduct advanced security assessments before VIPs arrive, and secure trusted and vetted transportation (including armoured cars in some cases.) VIPs will include both Russian citizens and foreign (including U.S.) dignitaries attending the games. Private security details will be out in force. Aggressive security approach Overeager and outspoken fans are a part of the football culture, but Russia will deploy a near-zero tolerance policy against hooliganism and riots. An overwhelming force presence will take an aggressive approach to curbing any civil disturbances, and offenders will be removed quickly by Russian security forces. Strict restrictions on the sale and consumption of alcohol will be enforced in the venue cities before and after the matches. Officials will also be cognisant of the possibility of a riot or other event being used as a distraction to draw attention from another area where a terrorist event is planned. It will be a delicate balance between deploying an aggressive security approach and preserving the fan experience. Joelson notes that freedom of speech is not as valued in Russia as in other parts of the world, so the scales will be even more tipped toward security. “The last thing they want is for things to get out of control,” says Horner. “The event is putting Russia on the world stage, and they want visitors to walk away safely after having a great time and wanting to go back in the future.” Attendees should also have good situational awareness, and keep their heads up, scanning crowds and identifying unsafe situations" Precautions for World Cup attendees Attendees to the World Cup in Russia should take some basic precautions, Horner and Joelson agree. For example, Russia requires a translated, notarised letter explaining any prescription drugs. The country has a more aggressive foreign intelligence environment, so visitors cannot depend on their data being private. Joelson recommends the usual “social media hygiene” and privacy settings. Visitors should not post information about their travel plans or locations, and it’s best to travel with a disposable mobile phone that does not contain personal information. Location tracking should be deactivated. Travellers should also beware of talking and sharing information with others, or of saying anything derogatory. “They should also have good situational awareness, and keep their heads up, scanning crowds and identifying unsafe situations,” says Joelson. “If you bring a personal electronic device, you should expect that it has been compromised,” says Horner. Text messages and email will not be private, and he suggests creating an email address used only for travel. Don’t leave drinks unattended. Travellers from the U.S. should register at the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program (STEP) operated by the U.S. State Department. “Plan before you travel and before you get to the airport,” says Horner.

The benefits and challenges of in-camera audio analytics for surveillance solutions
The benefits and challenges of in-camera audio analytics for surveillance solutions

Audio is often overlooked in the security and video surveillance industry. There are some intercom installations where audio plays a key role, but it’s not typically thought about when it comes to security and event management. Audio takes a back seat in many security systems because audio captured from a surveillance camera can have a different impact on the privacy of those being monitored. Audio surveillance is therefore subject to strict laws that vary from state to state. Many states require a clearly posted sign indicating audio recording is taking place in an area before a person enters. Analytic information derived from audio can be a useful tool and when implemented correctly, removes any concerns over privacy or legal compliance. Audio analytics on the edge overcomes legal challenges as it never passes audio outside of the camera Focused responses to events Audio analytics processed in the camera, has been a niche and specialised area for many installers and end users. This could be due to state laws governing audio recording, however, audio analytics on the edge overcomes legal challenges as it never passes audio outside of the camera Processing audio analytics in-camera provides excellent privacy since audio data is analysed internally with a set of algorithms that only compare and assess the audio content. Processing audio analytics on the edge also reduces latency compared with any system that needs to send the raw audio to an on-premises or cloud server for analysis. Audio analytics can quickly pinpoint zones that security staff should focus on, which can dramatically shorten response times to incidents. Audio-derived data also provides a secondary layer of verification that an event is taking place which can help prioritise responses from police and emergency personnel. Having a SoC allows a manufacturer to reserve space for specialised features, and for audio analytics, a database of reference sounds is needed for comparison Microphones and algorithms Many IP-based cameras have small microphones embedded in the housing while some have a jack for connecting external microphones to the camera. Microphones on indoor cameras work well since the housing allows for a small hole to permit sound waves to reach the microphone. Outdoor cameras that are IP66 certified against water and dust ingress will typically have less sensitivity since the microphone is not exposed. In cases like these, an outdoor microphone, strategically placed, can significantly improve outdoor analytic accuracy. There are several companies that make excellent directional microphones for outdoor use, some of which can also combat wind noise. Any high-quality external microphone should easily outperform a camera’s internal microphone in terms of analytic accuracy, so it is worth considering in areas where audio information gathering is deemed most important. In-built audio-video analytics Surveillance cameras with a dedicated SoC (System on Chip) have become available in recent years with in-built video and audio analytics that can detect and classify audio events and send alerts to staff and emergency for sounds such as gunshots, screams, glass breaks and explosions. Having a SoC allows a manufacturer to reserve space for specialised features. For audio analytics, a database of reference sounds is needed for comparison. The camera extracts the characteristics of the audio source collected using the camera's internal or externally connected microphone and calculates its likelihood based on the pre-defined database. If a match is found for a known sound, e.g., gunshot, explosion, glass break, or scream, an event is triggered, and the message is passed to the VMS. If a match is found for a known sound, e.g., gunshot, explosion, glass break, or scream, an event is triggered, and the message is passed to the VMS Configuring a camera for audio analytics Audio detectionThe first job of a well-configured camera or camera/mic pair is to detect sounds of interest while rejecting ancillary sounds and noise below a preset threshold. Each camera must be custom configured for its particular environment to detect audio levels which exceed a user-defined level. Since audio levels are typically greater in abnormal situations, any audio levels exceeding the baseline set levels are detected as being a potential security event. Operators can be notified of any abnormal situations via event signals allowing the operator to take suitable measures. Finding a baseline of background noise and setting an appropriate threshold level is the first step. Installers should be able to enable or disable the noise reduction function and view the results to validate the optimum configuration during setup Noise reductionA simple threshold level may not be adequate enough to reduce false alarms depending on the environment where a camera or microphone is installed. Noise reduction is a feature on cameras that can reduce background noise greater than 55dB-65dB for increased detection accuracy. Installers should be able to enable or disable the noise reduction function and view the results to validate the optimum configuration during setup. With noise reduction enabled, the system analyses the attenuated audio source. As such, the audio source classification performance may be hindered or generate errors, so it is important to use noise reduction technology sparingly. Audio source classificationIt’s important to supply the analytic algorithm with a good audio level and a high signal-to-noise ratio to reduce the chance of generating false alarms under normal circumstances. Installers should experiment with ideal placement for both video as well as audio. While a ceiling corner might seem an ideal location for a camera, it might also cause background audio noise to be artificially amplified. Many cameras provide a graph which visualises audio source levels to allow for the intuitive checking of noise cancellation and detection levels. Analytics take privacy concerns out of the equation and allow installers and end users to use camera audio responsibly Messages and eventsIt’s important to choose a VMS that has correctly integrated the camera’s API (application programming interface) in order to receive comprehensive audio analytic events that include the classification ID (explosion, glass break, gunshot, scream). A standard VMS that only supports generic alarms, may not be able to resolve all of the information. More advanced VMS solutions can identify different messages from the camera. Well configured audio analytics can deliver critical information about a security event, accelerating response times and providing timely details beyond video-only surveillance. Analytics take privacy concerns out of the equation and allow installers and end users to use camera audio responsibly. Hanwha Techwin's audio source classification technology, available in its X Series cameras, features three customisable settings for category, noise cancellation and detection level for optimum performance in a variety of installation environments.

How important is packaging in the commercial security market?
How important is packaging in the commercial security market?

High-quality products are the building blocks of successful physical security systems. How they are packaged may sometimes be seen as an unimportant detail or an afterthought. But should it be? Effective packaging can serve many functions, from creating a favorable customer impression to ensuring the product isn’t damaged in transit. Packaging can also contribute to ease of installation. On the negative side, excess packaging can be an environmental concern, especially for customers who are sensitive to green factors or to minimising waste. We asked this week’s Expert Panel Roundtable: Is packaging of products important in the commercial security market? Why or why not?