Vehicle attack is a harsh reality in our modern society and large public gatherings, such as sports events, are considered to be potential terrorist targets. A baseball stadium, its fans and the American pastime are all at risk. In fact, way back in March 2005, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) identified a dozen possible strikes it viewed most devastating, including a truck bombing of a sports arena. In creating new stadiums or refurbishing present sites, sports organisations are making security a prime requisite.
Multi-level security approach
On a recent project to secure a new urban Major League baseball stadium, a multi-level approach was used to protect against car- and truck-bomb attacks, as well as guarding against errant drivers. Vehicle access control devises included crash-rated shallow foundation bollards, surface mount barricades and gates.
However, the security solutions implemented were only half the story. Since stadium construction works on a fast and rigid schedule, the other half was completing the project within a very short time frame. Opening day was set a year in advance with tens of thousands of fans planning to show up on that special day. Satisfying all of the stakeholders, including owners, city planning, police commissioners, architects, security engineers, construction management and contractors took time and patience. When all was said and done, there was little time left for manufacturing and installation.
Assuring truck- and car-bombers strike out
A stadium penetrated at any point by a car bomber can create a tragedy. Thus, the first line of defence was to encircle the entire stadium to make sure that terrorists or errant drivers could not get to the stadium facility itself. At the same time, though, there had to be the consideration that the bollards were being installed in an urban area with a series of infrastructure networks below ground. As there would be no need for them to ever be lowered to let any vehicle through, shallow foundation fixed bollards were efficient for such a job. The modules also meet the 1-meter clearance regulations mandated by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
Vehicle entrances to the stadium were controlled and protected using Delta DSC1200 surface-mounted vehicle barricades
With a foundation only 35 cm. deep, Delta’s DSC 600 Shallow Foundation Bollards were selected and installed. These 2-bollard modules, which can be arrayed in whatever length is required, will stop and destroy a 6804 kg truck travelling 80 km per hour. Their shallow foundation obviates the concerns of interference with buried water, gas and fuel pipes, storm drains, power lines and fibre optic communication lines.
They also reduced installation complexity, time, materials and corresponding costs by eliminating the major installation problems of traditional barriers caused by rough surfaces and turns. Since conventional barriers require surface areas to be completely leveled on curves, setbacks often end up too close to the facility. By simply staggering the DSC600 bollard modules, installers were able to provide protection to shallow underpinnings locales with uneven approaches and those with curves. They blend into curves, rough terrain or inclines easily and setbacks can be as short as two feet, providing a much greater safety cushion for the facility.
Delta vehicle entrance bollards
Traditional bollards also have foundations that are five or more feet in depth and are encircled with a web of steel rebar. Since the DSC600 bollards are supplied with their own “rebar” attached, installation is faster.
In some places, it was more appropriate to use Delta DSC650 shallow foundation bollard arrays, a downscaled version of the DSC600 arrays that will stop 2268 kg vehicles going 80 kph. Their foundation is only 30.5 cm. deep. They are also supplied with steel reinforcing mesh welded in place so that no additional rebar is needed.
Circling the ballpark were twenty-three variations of these bollard modules, to accommodate corners, height, lift out features and crash rating requirements. Vehicle entrances to the stadium were controlled and protected using Delta DSC1200 surface-mounted surface mount vehicle barricades while others used low profile SC3000 cantilevered gates.
|With no drainage or underground utilities issues, installation was much faster, as the schedule dictated|
The surface-mounted electro-mechanical high security barricades, which will stop a 6804 kg. vehicle going 64.4 kph, are kept in an upright position and lowered to let a vehicle through. They needed no foundation except a cement slab. Simply bolting the barricades to a slab instead of having to dig a trench reduced installation complexity, time, materials and corresponding costs. With no drainage or underground utilities issues, installation was much faster, as the schedule dictated.
In addition, the ballpark selected the electro-mechanical version barricades. The units simply plug into a120v/15A wall socket. With no hydraulics involved, installation was easier and faster. Plus, the electro-mechanical barricades provide a greener solution.
Three entrances are protected by SC3000 crash-rated cantilevered sliding gates. They will stop a 6804 kg. vehicle going 61kph. The vehicle stopping structure of the gate is the lower section and, at this ballpark, sliding gates with a low height was aesthetically pleasing to the facility while still providing protection.
Definitely a Crash Project
With the tight construction schedule, everything had to be planned almost to the minute. Engineering, planning, manufacturing and delivery of 18 truckloads of bollards, barriers and gates had to be completed within eight weeks of order to assure the contractor delivered a secure stadium for Opening Day. The delivery sequence was planned right down to how each truck was loaded. As each two-bollard module was lifted off the truck, it was set in place with a cement truck following directly behind.
The project was wrapped up with just-in-time delivery of decorative fibreglass covers custom-made for the project’s bollards. The delivery truck pulled up, the covers were dropped onto each bollard and a crew followed along with security bolts. The next day, the fans arrived.