Design tips to migrate from analogue to high definition surveillance
 Migrating from analogue to HD surveillance solutions 

Globally, the video surveillance market has been slow to move beyond its analogue origins. Many analogue technologies or first generation network video management systems installed in the last decade are now aging, becoming less reliable and unable to deliver the quality and coverage most security professionals demand. Increasing video quality using these older solutions requires an unmanageably large number of surveillance cameras and results in marginal forensic detail, making successful investigations difficult. As a result, we are now seeing a push beyond analogue into the world of high definition (HD) as security professionals begin to look for better video and greater resolution to lead to more successful investigations and higher rates of conviction.

Network surveillance and HD technology – the way forward

A network approach to surveillance, including high definition IP cameras, has proven to be the best way to deliver the extra resolution needed for improved video quality and overall security. HD technology can enhance security and reduce investigation times by capturing video that provides rapid, actionable evidence in place of the blurry, low quality images to which the industry was previously accustomed to.

In this article Rick Ramsay, Product Manager of Avigilon, describes five key design considerations to help security professionals successfully migrate or upgrade their surveillance systems to high definition as cost-effectively as possible.

1 - Address the core of the surveillance system First

Taking the POT approach to system design, security professionals can significantly reduce overall surveillance camera count while still achieving the best level of detail 

Many organisations begin their upgrade initiative by replacing their cameras, but this is not necessarily the right place to start. Conventional systems that archive video from VGA cameras compromise quality because excessive compression eliminates detail, meaning that security professionals cannot recover visually lossless video.

Instead of trying to replace existing surveillance cameras, system designers should first find a compression and transmission software “engines” that maximizes the performance of existing VGA cameras and lowers costs. This approach, in combination with analogue to digital encoders, allows system designers to preserve assets while improving video quality – without re-cabling new cameras. Complement the existing camera network by designing a hybrid system complete with HD cameras at high traffic areas and protect critical views to the extent budget allows. By doing so, system designers can scale and add HD capability over time.

This approach, in combination with analogue to digital encoders, allows system designers to preserve assets while improving video quality 
 Image showing the different levels of coverage in specific pixel resolutions



defining the video quality required using “Pixels on Target”
View large image

Using pixel targeting to increase the quality of images

2 - Define the video quality required using “Pixels on Target”

With megapixel surveillance cameras, users can define the video quality required to capture the desired forensic detail by using the new industry “pixels on target” (POT) metric. Commercial, off-the-shelf megapixel cameras are available today in one to 16 megapixels, allowing designers to build a fit-to-purpose system. A one megapixel camera delivers 327 percent more pixels than VGA while a sixteen megapixel camera delivers over 5000 percent more! POT is calculated by dividing the width of the scene covered by the horizontal resolution of the camera. A 1000 pixel wide camera covering 10 feet provides a POT of 100 pixels per foot.

To positively identify a human face, a POT of 40 pixels per foot is required. A single 16 megapixel camera can cover scenes up to 120 feet wide and capture 40 pixels per foot. In comparison, to achieve the same level of detail would require 50 or more conventional surveillance cameras. Taking the POT approach to system design, security professionals can significantly reduce overall camera count while still achieving the best level of detail required for each situation, thereby lowering costs while enhancing overall surveillance. And, the improved video detail available will result in a higher percentage of successful investigations and speed deployment for first responders.

3 - Reduce bandwidth requirements for video transmission

Perhaps the most crucial task for an HD surveillance system is to manage the transmission and display of visual information on monitoring workstations and shared remotely by associated decision makers or other agencies. The benefit of the additional detail provided by HD can be wasted by the inability of the system to transmit, process, or manage it properly.

Intelligent HD platforms use data management software to manage transmission and display using a progressive compression method. An HD data file is a deep three-dimensional stream that provides high forensic video value, archived and processed at the edge of a network. However, an investigator monitoring or calling up information will only view a portion of the file at any given time. By sending only the requested pixels and not the entire data stream, the monitor workstation does not become overwhelmed with processing unnecessary pixels or data. This design produces immediate savings in bandwidth for transmission and requires less processing power at the workstation level.

Blurry CCTV image of a stadium
View larger image
Blurry image of stadium
Sharp High definition image of stadium
View larger image
Clear image of stadium


4 - Improve video storage and retrieval

More pixels, more evidence, and more detail all result in the need for more storage. An effective video storage management system offers advanced tools that enable security professionals to manage available storage, including per camera data aging, maximum retention time, and scheduled online backups, also taking advantage of network design. Intelligent data aging allows organizations to retain recent footage at the original highest frame rate and then after a set time, store footage trimmed to half the original frame rate and at a further point in time, at one quarter the original frame rate for improved storage efficiency. System designers should look for a video storage management system that can set this standard on a camera-by-camera basis to achieve precise control of data quality and retention periods for each camera.

Once a robust, underlying data gathering, transmission, and management system is in place, the real worth of a HD digital surveillance system becomes clear 

5 - Take advantage of real time video analytics

Once a robust, underlying data gathering, transmission, and management system is in place, the real worth of an HD digital surveillance system becomes clear: it can be digitally monitored to immediately and irrefutably detect unusual situations and associated detail, and can even perform accurate facial detail validation. Advanced video surveillance software can more effectively monitor real-time surveillance information gathered by cameras. When the software detects an event, it can alarm and alert security professionals for immediate investigation of the situation. Since HD video detail is far greater, judgments are more rapid and accurate; resulting in potentially reduced and resolved crises.

If the megapixel surveillance camera is equivalent to the eye, then recording, transmitting, storing, and monitoring solutions can be considered the brains behind an HD surveillance system. By specifying a software “engine” that can handle the transmission, recording, and analytics, security professionals can incrementally migrate from analogue to digital HD systems more easily.

Rick Ramsay Rick Ramsay
Product Manager
Avigilon
Share with LinkedIn Share with Twitter Share with Facebook Share with Facebook
Download PDF version Download PDF version

In case you missed it

Remote Monitoring technology: Tackling South Africa’s cable theft problem
Remote Monitoring technology: Tackling South Africa’s cable theft problem

For decades, cable theft has caused disruption to infrastructure across South Africa, and an issue that permeates the whole supply chain. Here, Ian Loudon, international sales and marketing manager at remote monitoring specialist Omniflex, explains how new cable-alarm technology is making life difficult for criminals and giving hope to businesses. In November 2020, Nasdaq reported that, “When South Africa shut large parts of its economy and transport network during its COVID-19 lockdown, organised, sometimes armed, gangs moved into its crumbling stations to steal the valuable copper from the lines. Now, more than two months after that lockdown ended, the commuter rail system, relied on by millions of commuters, is barely operational.” Private security firm Despite this most recent incident, cable theft is not a new phenomenon to sweep South Africa Despite this most recent incident, cable theft is not a new phenomenon to sweep South Africa. In 2001, SABC TV broadcast a story following two members of a private security firm working for Telkom, a major telecoms provider. In the segment, the two guards, working in Amanzimtoti on the south coast of KwaZulu-Natal, head out to investigate a nearby alarm that has been triggered. They reach a telecoms cabinet and discover that it has been compromised, with the copper cable cut and telephone handsets strewn across the ground. In the dark, they continue to search the area when one of the guards discovers the problem: 500 metres of copper wire has been ripped out. In their haste, the thieves have dropped their loot and fled. Widespread cable theft Had they managed to get away, they would have melted the cable to remove the plastic insulation and sold the copper to a local scrap dealer for around 900 Rand, about $50 US dollars. For the company whose infrastructure has been compromised, it may cost ten times that amount to replace and repair the critical infrastructure. The disappointing takeaway from this story is that two decades on from this incident the country still faces widespread cable theft, whether it’s copper cables from mines, pipelines, railways, telecoms or electrical utilities. In fact, the South African Chamber of Commerce and Industry estimates that cable theft costs the economy between R5–7 billion a year. The answer to the problem must go further than the existing measures used by companies. Detect power failure Most businesses already invest in CCTV, fences, barriers and even patrol guards, but this is not enough. Take the mining sector, for example. These sites can be vast, spanning dozens of kilometres - it’s simply not cost effective to install enough fences or employ enough guards or camera operators. As monitoring technology gets better, the company has seen site managers increasingly use cable alarms in recent years that detect when a power failure occurs. The idea is that, if one can detect a power failure, they can detect whether the cable has been cut The idea is that, if one can detect a power failure, they can detect whether the cable has been cut. The problem is though: how does one distinguish the difference between a situation where a cable has been cut intentionally and a genuine power outage? Power outages in South Africa are an ongoing problem, with the country contending with an energy deficit since late 2005, leading to around 6,000 MW of power cuts in 2019. Remote terminal units Eskom Holdings SOC Ltd., the company that generates around 95 per cent of South Africa’s power has already warned of further blackouts as the company works to carry out repairs to its power plants. According to a statement on the company’s website, “Eskom spends in the region of R2 billion a year replacing stolen copper cables." The result is that criminals take advantage of the gaps in power to steal cable, timing their robberies to coincide with the published load shedding schedules. The basic alarms used to detect power outage won’t recognise the theft because they register a false-positive during a power cut. By the time the power comes back on, the deed has been done and the criminals have gotten away with the cable. The good news is that recent breakthroughs in cable monitoring technology are helping tackle just this problem. New alarms on the market now combine sophisticated GSM-based monitoring systems that use battery powered remote terminal units. Legitimate supply chain Unlike the basic alarms that look for the presence or absence of power, these new systems monitor whether the cable circuit is in an open or closed state. In the event of a power outage, the unit continues to run on battery power and can detect if a cable has been cut, sending a priority SMS alert to the site manager immediately, giving them a fighting chance to prevent a robbery in progress. Beyond the opportunistic theft carried out by petty criminals, the theft of copper cables forms a wider problem Beyond the opportunistic theft carried out by petty criminals, the theft of copper cables forms a wider problem across the supply chain in South Africa. In recent years, the combination of unscrupulous scrap dealers, the alleged involvement of large scrap processing companies and lax penalties meant that much of the stolen copper ended up back in the legitimate supply chain. However, recent changes in the law have sought to take a tougher stance on copper theft. Alarm monitoring technology According to the Western Cape Government, “The Criminal Matters Amendment Act, regulates bail and imposes minimum offences for essential infrastructure-related offences." The act, which came into effect in 2018, recommends sentencing for cable theft, with the minimum sentence for first-time offenders being three years and for those who are involved in instigating or causing damage to infrastructure, the maximum sentence is thirty years. It seems to be working too. In January 2021, the South African reported that a Johannesburg man was sentenced to eight years behind bars for cable theft in Turffontein. While the longer-term outlook is a positive one for industry, the best advice for businesses seeking to alleviate the problem of cable theft in the immediate future is to invest in the latest cable-theft alarm monitoring technology to tackle the problem and make life difficult for criminals.

What are the positive and negative effects of COVID-19 to security?
What are the positive and negative effects of COVID-19 to security?

The COVID-19 global pandemic had a life-changing impact on all of us in 2020, including a multi-faceted jolt on the physical security industry. With the benefit of hindsight, we can now see more clearly the exact nature and extent of that impact. And it’s not over yet: The pandemic will continue to be top-of-mind in 2021. We asked this week’s Expert Panel Roundtable: What have been the positive and negative effects of Covid-19 on the physical security industry in 2020? What impact will it have on 2021?

Maximising supermarket safety with real-time surveillance solutions
Maximising supermarket safety with real-time surveillance solutions

Supermarket employees have been the hidden key workers of the past year, keeping shelves stocked and queues under control as panic buying gripped the nation. As a result of being expected to enforce face covering and social distancing regulations, they also been asked to act as de-facto security guards alongside their existing duties. This is problematic as many employees have never had to deal with this kind of responsibility before, let alone received any conflict de-escalation training. In order to maintain the safety and security of their staff retailers must take additional steps to uphold their duty of care, with the NPCC recently specifying that it is the responsibility of retailers ‘to manage entry to their stores and compliance with the law while customers are inside’. Supermarkets in particular need to be aware of this requirement, as the big four recently announced that their employees would now be challenging customers shopping in groups and those not wearing masks. Verbal abuse from the public Crime against retail employees has already been a major issue over the course of the pandemic, confirmed by research from the Union of Shop, Distributive and Allied Workers that found 90% of retail staff in the UK experienced verbal abuse last year. The Co-op has recently been vocal about the effects of the pandemic and lockdown-related frustrations on its employees.90% of retail staff in the UK experienced verbal abuse last year The supermarket reported a 140% increase in crime within its stores over the past year, with many of the 200,000 cases related to verbal and physical abuse experienced by employees. Jo Whitfield, Co-op Food chief executive, confirmed that the number of issues has already increased drastically as a result of staff enforcing COVID-secure guidelines. So, what steps must retailers take to ensure their duty of care remains intact as employees take on new enforcement responsibilities? Introducing real-time surveillance technology to support security guards and shop floor employees alike is vital. Bolstering front line defences Security guards posted at supermarket entrances are the first line of defence against shoppers determined to break the rules. However, they are now being pulled in multiple directions with queues to monitor and occupancy to manually keep track of, along with the usual security alarms to respond to. With one person usually posted at the entrance at any one time it’s simply impossible to have eyes everywhere, which is where automated video surveillance comes in. COVID-specific technologies, such as mask detection and occupancy management systems, are now the golden bullet to retail safety and security.Mask detection and occupancy management surveillance tools can automatically alert a shopper Mask detection and occupancy management surveillance tools can automatically alert a shopper whether or not they are allowed to enter the store on their approach to the door. The system surveys the person and a screen will automatically display different instructions depending on the situation: whether they must put a mask on before they enter, wait until capacity is low enough to enable social distancing or, if the previous criteria are fulfilled, that they are free to enter. COVID-secure safety This stand-off technology minimises the need for contact between security personnel and shoppers, allowing security guards to complete their usual duties, safe in the knowledge that the store is being managed in a COVID-secure way. With a hands-off approach enabled by surveillance technology, the potential for tense confrontation is greatly diminished as customers will usually comply to the reminder shown to them and put on a mask or wait without further prompting from staff. With security personnel able to better focus their attention on the stubborn rule-breakers,It is crucial that retailers choose a solution embedded in real-time connectivity this responsibility will no longer land with staff on the shop floor who are often ill-equipped to deal with this situation. It is crucial that retailers choose a solution embedded in real-time connectivity that will allow all store entrances to be screened simultaneously. Nobody can be in multiple places at once, but this connectivity allows alerts to be streamed instantly to any connected device that can be monitored by just one employee, meaning they can review the alerts that require their attention without needing to be physically present or re-tasked away from their day-to-day duties. Instant reassurance with body worn tech As a customer-facing role, there can be no guarantee that shop workers will never experience a potentially violent confrontation with a customer, which is where the presence of live streaming body worn cameras can help. While they may not always be trained to de-escalate a risky situation, being able to discreetly call for assistance can provide the reassurance employees need to feel safe and supported at all times. If an employee asks a customer to put a mask on while they’re in the store or step back from another shopper and the situation turns abusive – verbally or physically – a live streaming-enabled body worn camera can be triggered to stream a live audio and video feed back to a central control room manned by trained security personnel.A live streaming-enabled body worn camera can be triggered This real-time footage gives security staff exceptional situational awareness, allowing them to fully assess the situation and decide on the best course of action to support the employee in distress, whether that is going to the scene to diffuse the situation or contacting the police in more serious circumstances. Bolstering front line security This goes one step further than record-only body worn cameras, the capabilities of which these next generation devices match and exceed. Record-only cameras are well-suited to provide after-the-fact evidence if a customer interaction turns sour, but they do little to provide reassurance to out of depth employees in the moment. The duty of care grocery retailers must provide to their employees has never been more important, with staff taking on new mask and social distancing enforcement responsibilities and managing interactions with frustrated customers. Bolstering front line security and giving staff extra reassurances with the introduction of real-time video surveillance technology is a crucial step for retailers striving to keep employees and shoppers safe during these challenging times.