Access control system accessories - Expert commentary

Q&A: Bosch Video Systems & Solutions' Michael Seiter and Magnus Ekerot on smart technology, "AIot", and plans for 2021
Q&A: Bosch Video Systems & Solutions' Michael Seiter and Magnus Ekerot on smart technology, "AIot", and plans for 2021

Q: Mr. Seiter, Mr. Ekerot, you both joined Bosch Building Technologies’ business unit Video Systems & Solutions as Senior Vice Presidents in March 2020, when the Coronavirus pandemic was just beginning. How did your business unit get through 2020? Magnus Ekerot: The crisis was also felt at Bosch. At the same time, demand has risen for solutions that keep businesses open and protect people's health. We offer corresponding video solutions that can make a significant contribution to containing the pandemic.  Michael Seiter: Overall, we managed the past year well despite the challenges and have been growing again since the third quarter compared to 2019. We see good opportunities for further growth in 2021. Q: Has the Corona crisis again accelerated the development of smart technologies in the security technology market, and does the security market in contrast to most industries benefit from the crisis more than it suffers? Michael Seiter: The Corona crisis has definitely demonstrated that the future lies in data-driven solutions. Thanks to our product development strategy already being based on this, we at Bosch were very quickly able to develop new products for the ‘New Normal’ and to expand existing products accordingly. To give one or two examples: in cooperation with Philips, we very quickly developed a people counting solution for retail operations – smart Philips displays in conjunction with smart cameras from Bosch that provide protection for staff and customers. The In-Store Analytics software solution was also implemented with additional features. Shop owners can now make decisions based on customer movement data such as “Where do we position products to avoid queues or crowds?” HTD involves a touch-free monitoring system to accurately and speedily identify people with heightened skin temperature  The latest highlight is the Bosch Human Skin Temperature Detection solution, in short HTD. This involves a touch-free monitoring system to accurately and speedily identify people with heightened skin temperature at control points in offices, factory floors, or airports. The benefits of previously existing solutions on the market are sometimes called into question. Competitors are often unable to deliver what they promise because, for example, the measured temperature of the skin does not correspond to the core temperature of the person, or fluctuates, due to environmental influences. Therefore, we developed a software-based solution that, in compliance with GDPR, first allows people with potentially elevated body temperatures to be filtered out, and in a second step, allows medical personnel to perform a more targeted fever measurement. Q: You see a lot of potential for the video security industry in new technologies such as Artificial Intelligence and the Internet of Things. What specific opportunities do you mean, and how are you leveraging these technologies at Bosch Building Technologies? Michael Seiter: Bosch has committed itself fully to an “AIoT” – AI meets IoT – strategy. The development of AI algorithms and software, in general, is at Bosch significantly driven in the security space.  By AIoT, we specifically mean the networking of physical products and the deployment of artificial intelligence. With AI we aim to enable clients to understand events at an ever-deeper level and predict them in the future – the keyword being predictive – so that they can act proactively. This is particularly important for health and safety. An example is the Intelligent Insights solution where the user can anticipate potentially dangerous situations, for instance in maintaining social distance and a maximum number of people numbers in any one area. Q: From your point of view do you have an advantage over other suppliers when it comes to AI-based products in the video arena? Michael Seiter: The analysis and utilisation of video data have long been front and centre with us. Since 2016 we’ve been following the strategy of offering AI applications in the form of integrated intelligent video analytics as a standard in our network cameras. Data such as colour, object size, object speed, and direction are all measured. Simply put, you can say this is seeing and understanding – which is the principle behind smart security cameras. Today it’s much more a question of intelligent, data-based solutions than collecting high-quality pictures and storing them for the record. Bosch has been investing heavily in AI for years, from which we can benefit greatly in our area. In the first quarter, for example, we will launch a vehicle detector based on deep learning that is already running on our cameras. This will create significant added value for our customers in the area of intelligent traffic control. Q: Mr. Ekerot, what advantages do customers have in AI-based video security from Bosch? Magnus Ekerot: A key advantage is strong customer focus with tailored solutions that are at the same time modular and scalable through new AI algorithms A key advantage is our strong customer focus with tailored solutions that are at the same time modular and scalable through new AI algorithms. Take the example of Camera Trainer, a machine learning software that can be directly uploaded to Bosch network cameras. The camera is thus trained up on recognising objects and situations – tailored to the specific needs of our customers. If the camera detects the defined scenario, it performs a predefined action in real-time – for example, a count or an alarm. The latest example is our new camera platform Inteox. As a completely open camera platform, Inteox combines Bosch's intelligent video analytics with an open operating system. This allows programmers to develop specific software applications - or apps - for various application purposes. These can then be loaded onto cameras – the same principle as an app store for smartphones. To sum up, Bosch AI applications support customer-specific needs related to data analysis while enabling totally new applications within and beyond the video security market. Q: Can you name a specific current project where Bosch has deployed an AI-based solution? Magnus Ekerot: A current ground-breaking project using our smart cameras is being implemented as a pilot in the USA. Smart Ohio enables users to configure more intelligent traffic flows and thus ensure mobility, safety, and the efficient use of roads today and tomorrow. The new vehicle detector mentioned by Mr. Seiter also plays a central role here. Our overall goal is to provide connected smart sensor solutions for public and private transportation agencies to enable them to operate their roads safely and efficiently. The Intelligent Insights can anticipate potentially dangerous situations, for instance in maintaining social distance and a maximum number of people numbers in any one area Q: Mr. Seiter, you have been involved with the topic of mobility for some time. What experience from your previous job in the automotive business of Bosch might help you when it comes to further develop the video portfolio of Bosch Building Technologies? Michael Seiter: There's a lot to tell. First of all, the development of core algorithms for video-based solutions, whether for autonomous driving, for vehicle interior monitoring, or for our Bosch Building Technologies video systems, all come together at Bosch's Hildesheim location. This gives us considerable synergies and allows us to bring R&D results to market faster and more flexibly. Essentially, assisted driving systems use AI algorithms that process ever-increasing volumes of video data. Attempts are being made to imitate the human being and enable the vehicle to understand better the surrounding environment with its ‘eyes’. This predictive capability is especially critical with autonomous driving. For example, key questions include: “How should the car respond and what could potentially happen next?” “What kind of environment does it find itself in?” etc. There are many activities in this area at Bosch that in my new role in security we can also strongly benefit from. I am now bringing a lot of this experience and existing R&D achievements to Bosch Video Systems & Solutions, which also results in further synergies with our mobility division: At Stuttgart Airport, autonomous driving is already being implemented together with Mercedes-Benz and the parking garage operator Apcoa as part of the "Automated Valet Parking" project, or AVP for short, in which intelligent video systems from Bosch Building Technologies are making a significant contribution. Mr. Ekerot, you have a lot of experience in the video security area. Where do you position Bosch Building Technologies now in this market and what specific goals are you pursuing? Magnus Ekerot: Our clients are looking for reliable partners and products. We are a strong brand; you can rely on Bosch products. Bosch is a thought leader in video and a pioneer in AI applications in this field since 2016. Data security is everything to us: Our products conform to the EU’s GDPR regulations. Beyond that, we have an extensive camera portfolio that complies with the US National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for video security devices. This enables our portfolio to be deployed for example within US government buildings. We are planning to conclude more software maintenance agreements with our clients in 2021. These deliver investment and future security for our customers and include for example a ‘patch guarantee’ along with regular updates with new functionalities. This is the first step in a comprehensive plan to access new revenue channels for us and our partners delivering the best technology and excellent service to the end-user! Overall, many new products will be launched this year and this trend will intensify. Our goal is to establish new product families that follow a simple principle: “The development and delivery of disruptive, predictive video solutions that every user can trust because of the underlying sustainable forward-thinking mindset.” It’s been much discussed of late that Bosch is one of the very first companies globally that operates on a CO2-neutral basis. How does sustainability impact your business? Magnus Ekerot: IoT solutions are actually sustainable and contribute to environmental protection Our IoT solutions are actually sustainable and contribute to environmental protection. For example, our cameras are sustainable in that they remain up-to-date through software updates and needn’t be constantly exchanged for new ones. Our systems demonstrate sustainability also operationally as they can be managed remotely. System integrators don’t need to be physically present, thus avoiding unnecessary travel with its accompanying emissions. All in all, Bosch Building Technologies develops ways to accompany and support our clients in reaching their climate goals via new technologies. This can be done, for example, through improved energy efficiency, the total cost of ownership models, organising and simplifying the supply chain, and helping our customers meet their social responsibilities. The Power of Bosch helps us here to leverage company-wide research to be two steps ahead, a shade faster, when it comes to new technologies and initiatives that our and future generations will benefit from. I should also say that I am personally very proud to work for a company that set an ambitious climate goal for itself and achieved it! Can you already share a preview of your technology innovations in 2021? Michael Seiter: We see great market potential for our cameras that use artificial intelligence and can be updated flexibly throughout their lifecycles. I have already mentioned the deep learning-based vehicle detector in our cameras. More such solutions – also for other applications where object and person recognition are important – will follow in the course of the year. And the best part is: with AI, the more data we collect and the more intelligently we use it, the better the solutions become and the more added value they bring to the customer. This will revolutionise our industry! Another example is our cloud-based solutions, for example for alarm monitoring. Here, we can now also integrate third-party cameras and, building on this, offer and jointly develop our intelligent software-based solutions. This gives our customers more opportunities to take advantage of the opportunities created by AI. The trend towards integration of the various security technologies seems to be driven mostly by the rapid progress in software development. Does this affect full-range suppliers such as Bosch and what specific plans for fully integrated security solutions do you have for the future? Michael Seiter: Naturally, this suits us as a full-scope supplier. Bosch solutions are deployed in many cross-domain client projects. We have experts for the different domains under one roof and a strong brand with the same quality promise for all areas. Nevertheless, it is always also about specific domain excellence. Only when you master all different areas and have profound and proven expertise in each of them you can succeed in integrated cross-domain projects. The respective business units craft their future strategies and innovation roadmaps with this in mind – as we do in the field of Video Systems & Solutions. Our business unit offers fully integrated Bosch video solutions that can be extended and operated on open systems. This is why we drive open platforms such as Inteox, to offer customers from a wide range of industries the right solutions. Our Bosch Integration Partner Program that we launched in 2012 is also heading in this direction – every product can be integrated into multiple other systems and VMS solutions. In summary: At Bosch, we are both a one-stop-shop, but also an open-system, meaning we offer customers maximum flexibility in their choice of products and services.

Surveillance in 2017: 360-degree cameras  a primary device for total situational awareness
Surveillance in 2017: 360-degree cameras a primary device for total situational awareness

The physical security market continues to experience growth as users look to capitalise on the promises of emerging technologies and because of this, 2017 proved to be a great year for Oncam. In fact, this year was the best year in Oncam's history in terms of sales, as 360-degree fisheye cameras have gone from being a “specialty” camera used only in certain applications to a primary device for enabling total situational awareness. Today, many of our customers leverage 360-degree cameras exclusively to provide extensive coverage inside a facility or in a large outdoor area, with traditional narrow field-of-view cameras used only at “choke” points. Increase in cybersecurity threats and breaches At the end of 2016, we predicted a major trend this year would be an increase in cybersecurity concerns for users of physical security systems, and we were right. An increase in cybersecurity threats and breaches have put organisations on watch. Based on this and the adoption of more IT-centric infrastructure and protocols, there is significant collaboration between IT and physical security, and true “convergence” is finally starting to happen. The adoption of video analytics also continued to increase this year, as most video surveillance projects involved the use of some form of analytics and data analysis. Demand for safeguards As we move into 2018, the trends of 2017 will roll over, and cybersecurity will continue to be a major issue. Suppliers of hardware and software will put an even greater emphasis being cyber secure and end users will increasingly demand safeguards. Additionally, the deployment and use of advanced analytics based on newer artificial intelligence-based technologies will continue to increase. It will be the technology providers that find ways to allow users to capture additional value from the information collected by security systems that will accelerate growth. Oncam made significant investments in new products that leverage analytics and cloud technologies. In 2018, we will continue to invest in the development of new products, with a focus on solutions for particular applications across industry segments. Beyond our technology advancements, we've invested significantly in boosting our sales force in the Americas and adding industry experts to ensure sustained customer and partner success with our solutions. From our vantage point, Oncam is well positioned to capitalise on opportunities for growth in the coming year.

Connected, cyber-secure solutions will lead the security market in 2018
Connected, cyber-secure solutions will lead the security market in 2018

2017 was quite an interesting and eventful year for the physical security industry. The economy has been robust and technology has become progressively sophisticated—with interactive services, cloud computing and network-based solutions taking charge to provide new insights to installers and their end-user customers. The Internet of Things is creating increasingly integrated solutions, with a heightened emphasis on total connectivity. Changing security expectations World events have also put the spotlight on the need for comprehensive security at public events, tourist attractions and schools and campuses. Security is an expectation and systems integrators are becoming trusted advisors to their customers, who are looking to them to solve problems or issues. Residential systems are more robust and now, are migrating to the commercial side of the business. There’s a blurring of the lines of technology—many of the products that come to the security industry originate from the consumer side. This proposition is also changing expectations by both residential and commercial customers, who want common, easy operation from their smartphone or user interface. Unexpected was some of the biggest deals in the industry, including acquisitions by dominant companies who grew even larger and continued ongoing consolidation on the manufacturing side. Those who remain will need to be progressive and step up their game with the latest proven technologies. Selling hardware isn’t the end game any longer. It’s providing solutions that generate revenue for security dealers and offer a solid return on investment for the end-user. In addition, solutions need to be easier for the user, and integrate many different systems and components across the enterprise. Cybersecurity safeguards End users want to get the most out of their solutions—and they want to be able to have more than safety and security. They are looking for the types of products that yield insights into system performance and give them the data the need for greater control and to proactively address any challenges or problems before they occur. Downtime is not an option and therefore, there’s an increased emphasis on consistent power so solutions are always on and running reliably. For security dealers and integrators, physical security and cybersecurity services will be part of their offerings and no longer separate disciplines Cybersecurity is a dominant conversation in the security industry these days and that buzz will continue into 2018. Because solutions are increasingly network connected, they have vulnerabilities that will have to be addressed by service providers and manufacturers. Manufacturers will need to take the upper hand in providing hardened products—testing and certifying for cybersecurity safeguards. That is not an easy task and can be expensive, but it needs to be done. Because cybersecurity is in constant evolution, many will go the route of outsourcing this component of their manufacturing to third parties well-versed in threat detection and hardening. Hardened products will also need to evolve with new emerging attacks. For security dealers and integrators, physical security and cybersecurity services will be part of their offerings and no longer separate disciplines. Intelligent access control solutions Manufacturers no longer operate in silos. They are working with systems integrators to more fully understand their needs and those of the end-user. Manufacturers are also partnering with technology providers—bringing in the expertise of others so their solutions are comprehensive and holistic. We will continue to see integration of formerly disparate components, open systems and open APIs. There will also be strong migration to access control systems with edge intelligence and power over Ethernet, leveraging existing cabling for network connectivity. The winners will be those who take the lead in providing cyber secured and hardened products, as well as companies who partner with others to bring best of breed solutions to market. The losers will be those who continue to develop proprietary, closed systems and fail to recognise the importance of network connectivity for real-time, proactive reporting. Without networked power, the facility cannot yield the proper insights it needs to stay reliably connected 24/7 Ongoing partner success LifeSafety Power® has been working consistently and diligently on elevating the status of power from unintelligent hardware device to network-connected component that yields rich data for the user and allows the installer to provide remote monitoring and managed power services. We have changed the paradigm of power but there’s additional work to do to get people to understand the new, critical role power plays in comprehensive enterprise and campus security. Now, security installers can help the end user know what’s happening with locks, access control, gates or other connected solutions and fix problems before they happen. Without networked power, the facility cannot yield the proper insights it needs to stay reliably connected 24/7. We have also had continued, ongoing successes with our many partners in the access control community and that’s where we will further focus our efforts in 2018—working with leading security solution providers to present the best technologies and solutions that are reliable, certified and present the types of insights security dealers need to offer customers to provide the highest levels of service. This will also help security dealers and integrators differentiate themselves and compete more effectively in the crowded marketplace.

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Security Industry Association launches Talent Inclusion Mentorship Education program for security professionals
Security Industry Association launches Talent Inclusion Mentorship Education program for security professionals

The Security Industry Association (SIA) and the SIA RISE Steering Committee are launching Talent Inclusion Mentorship Education (TIME) – a new mentorship program for early and mid-career professionals in the security industry. The TIME program is designed to promote diversity, equity and inclusion and empowerment of underrepresented identities in the security industry by creating a well-defined pathway for learning and development. Talented security industry “SIA’s new TIME mentorship program seeks to build a security industry full of diverse perspectives, people and cultures,” said Pierre Trapanese, chair of the SIA Board of Directors. “Through the program, we look forward to creating valuable learning experiences for both mentees and mentors, giving back and helping to grow an inclusive, talented security industry.” SIA’s TIME mentorship program aims to offer meaningful developmental opportunities for participants. Key components of the TIME mentorship program include: Career development: Connecting early and mid-career professionals and students with established industry professionals to further career growth and talent development Skill enhancement: Building a sustainable community of support through collaboration, networking and skill building Recruitment: Attracting students to the security industry by providing insights on the wide array of career opportunities available Executive leadership development: Promoting leadership development opportunities that will encourage diversity within the ranks Fun networking opportunities TIME is guided by volunteers from the SIA RISE Diversity and Inclusion Subcommittee – including Bobby Louissaint, technical operations solutions manager at Facebook; Erin Mann, strategy and marketing manager, multifamily at Allegion; and Eddie Reynolds, CEO of Iluminar Inc. – and with the support of SIA staff. The program will run for 12 monthly sessions and have semi-annual orientations. SIA is seeking seasoned security industry professionals to serve as mentors in the TIME program. SIA RISE is a community that fosters the careers of young professionals in the security industry. Membership in SIA RISE – which offers fun networking opportunities, career growth webinars and education tracks at ISC West and East, scholarships and the annual AcceleRISE conference – is open to all employees at SIA member companies who are young professionals under 40 or have been in the security industry for less than two years.

SIA appoints Erin Mann and Kelsey Carnell as the new chair and vice chair to lead SIA RISE
SIA appoints Erin Mann and Kelsey Carnell as the new chair and vice chair to lead SIA RISE

The Security Industry Association (SIA) has named a new chair and vice chair to lead SIA RISE, a community that fosters the careers of young professionals in the security industry. Erin Mann – strategy and marketing manager, multifamily at Allegion Canada Inc. – will serve as chair of the RISE Steering Committee, with Kelsey Carnell – regional sales manager, New England at Axis Communications – serving as vice chair. In these new roles, Mann and Carnell will help RISE deliver educational content and networking opportunities to young professional employees of SIA member companies, college students and recent graduates interested in the global security industry. Security forum scholarship Erin Mann has been with Allegion in a variety of roles of increasing responsibilities since 2016. In 2019, she moved to Toronto to work for Allegion Canada, with a focus on the multifamily market. Having a passion for people, Mann is an active member of Allegion’s Young Professionals Group, a founding member of the organisation’s innovation group Creativity Unlocked, a member of Allegion’s Network of Empowered Women and a co-chair of Allegion Canada’s engagement group. Mann is a member of the Foundation for Advancing Security Talent (FAST) Board of Directors In addition to her work with RISE, Mann is a member of the Foundation for Advancing Security Talent (FAST) Board of Directors. In 2018, she was awarded the SIA RISE Scholarship, and in 2020, she was honoured with the SIA Women in Security Forum Scholarship. Mann is also a member of the SIA Women in Security Forum. She holds a B.A. in communications from DePauw University. Passionate young professionals “Joining the RISE committee in 2018 provided me with the most incredible community of dynamic, fun, engaging and passionate young professionals. RISE gave me a deeper understanding of the impact early-career individuals can have in our organisations and industry. I could not be more excited or grateful for the opportunity to lead the RISE group as chair for the next year, alongside Kelsey Carnell as vice chair,” said Mann. “Our committee is a team of dedicated and empowered individuals, and I am looking forward to the work that is ahead as we continue to collaborate with other groups, work towards more empowered and inclusive work spaces and build a network of excited leaders within the security industry.” Applications of IP video Carnell works with a dedicated inside sales account manager and field sales engineer In her role at Axis Communications, Carnell works with a dedicated inside sales account manager, field sales engineer and over 300 partners in the Western Massachusetts and Connecticut region, striving to share with integrators, distributors, consultants and end users the benefits and applications of IP video and Axis solutions. In 2018, she was selected as a recipient of the SIA RISE Scholarship. She holds a master’s degree in business administration and a bachelor’s degree in marketing from Southern New Hampshire University and completed the Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) course at Florida Atlantic University in 2019. Amazing young professionals “I am so excited and very honoured to have been selected as vice chair of the RISE committee this year, working alongside some amazing young professionals. RISE has been such a rewarding, fulfilling and inspiring group to be a part of for the last few years,” said Carnell. “This team works so hard to make a difference, push the envelope and drive some positive and necessary change within the industry. We work to uncover new initiatives and offer scholarships, educational modules, networking events and more. I am so excited to see what this group continues to accomplish and look forward to making a difference in the coming years!” Fun networking opportunities SIA RISE is an essential resource to help young security industry professionals access high-quality education" “SIA RISE is an essential resource to help young security industry professionals access high-quality education and training, make valuable connections and take their careers to the next level, and RISE’s offerings would not be possible without the support of talented volunteers like Erin Mann and Kelsey Carnell and our outgoing SIA RISE chair, Matt Feenan,” said SIA CEO Don Erickson. “We thank Matt for his dedicated leadership of RISE over the last two years and congratulate Erin and Kelsey on their new roles, and we look forward to partnering with them to help propel the security industry’s future growth.” SIA RISE – which offers fun networking opportunities, career growth webinars and education tracks at ISC West and East, scholarships and the annual AcceleRISE conference – is open to all employees at SIA member companies who are young professionals under 40 or have been in the security industry for less than two years.

LEAF Identity Consortium enables interoperability with encrypted smart cards
LEAF Identity Consortium enables interoperability with encrypted smart cards

Can a smart card be used securely for multiple applications (and among multiple manufacturers )? End users are demanding such interoperability, and they also want openness to switching out components of their access control systems in the future without being “locked in” to one vendor. Those are the goals of the LEAF Identity consortium, a collection of companies that share and support end user-owned encryption keys stored securely in smart cards with MIFARE DESFire EV2 chips and are used to authenticate access control credentials and read the data required to access multiple applications secured by multiple vendor devices. Smart card systems - more secure Almost everyone in the industry now knows that low-frequency (125 kHz) “prox” cards are not secure; in fact, low-cost cloning equipment is readily and inexpensively available. As the industry transitions to encrypted cards, challenges of interoperability persist. Keeping smart card systems more secure are AES 128 encryption keys encoded onto the card chips. Information is exchanged via radio frequency (RF) in a challenge-response interaction when a card is presented to a reader. The most recent LEAF EV2/EV3 cards allow up to 16 devices to be individually accessed using 16 unique keys, respectively that are stored in the smart cards (and among a variety of manufacturers). LEAF Identity Consortium enables interoperability with encrypted Smart Cards LEAF Memory Model specifies a standard EV2 (EV1 backward compatible) smart card data format and application access protocols that ensure each manufacturer’s devices can interface with a card chip in the same way. Specifically, each card has a “common data structure” based on the LEAF Memory Model, which means that the location of information is arranged on a card chip in a predictable and consistent manner. Each end-user application (for door readers, secure printing, vending, etc.) stored in the card is secured with their own cryptographic key. Member companies adhere to that structure in order to be interoperable with a single credential. There are no license fees or intellectual property rights involved. Keysets The approach involves a LEAF Custom Cryptographic Keyset (LEAF Cc Keysets) owned by the end-user. “When we present these concepts to integrators, they realize that, first, they need to get their clients to pay attention to the risks around proximity cards and to migrate to encrypted card technology,” says Laurie Aaron, Executive Vice President, WaveLynx Technologies Corp. “Then we explain the benefits of customer-owned keys and of the LEAF data structure. Then integrators can differentiate themselves by selling the value of the end-user staying in control and having unlimited interoperability.” WaveLynx Access control manufacturer WaveLynx is implementing the LEAF concept, which is the brainchild of CEO Hugo Wendling, who saw the advantages of leveraging the ability of an EV2 chip card to authenticate access to multiple applications by multiple manufacturer’s devices. WaveLynx set up the specification, maintains the website, and is involved when a manufacturer wants to become LEAF Enabled. They provide a key management service (for life) to end-users based on LEAF capabilities. End-users “own” the keys and can submit a request to WaveLynx to have us securely share them with any other manufacturer. Sharing a key involves two key custodians from WaveLynx Technologies and the Vendor who is receiving the customer’s keys, each of whom only has access to half of the encrypted key in order to keep it secure.  Keys are shared via a “key ceremony”. Combining capabilities The LEAF consortium provides a way for manufacturers to work together to provide an ecosystem of devices that are compatible with a single encrypted smart card without the need to embed proprietary reader modules in their devices or license another manufacturer’s technology, thereby making it possible for them to increase their market share. Working together, independent manufacturers can assemble a group of devices to compete more effectively with larger manufacturers. In effect, they combine their capabilities in order to offer the end-user viable options and to compete. LEAF Consortium partners include Allegion, ASSA ABLOY, Brivo, Eline by DIRAK, Linxens, RFIDeas, and Telaeris. Biometric partners include Idemia and IrisID. Biometric devices may either store their biometric on the card or on a central database and access it through the badge number. The LEAF standard continues to evolve. Although the standard does not currently offer mobile credentials, a common mobile credential standard is currently being discussed and designed by the Consortium.  

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